TOAW IV: The map and movement
The Map Edge
The map edge includes all locations adjacent to either an off-map or non-playable location.
This is everything contained in the entire playable map area. You have complete control in the Theater. In some Scenarios, events can occur outside of the Theater. These events can have significant impact in the Theater, and their potential effects may strongly influence your in-Theater decisions.
Some maps are partially obscured by black areas; these areas are permanently non playable. Units using Air and Airborne Movement may move through Non-Playable Areas, but they may not stop there. No other unit may enter a Non-Playable Area. Air Strikes may be launched across Non-Playable Areas. Supply cannot be traced across Non-Playable Areas.
In some Scenarios, part of the map may be partially obscured by an overlay of diagonal lines. These are Exclusion Zones, which are essentially non-playable areas. There may be as many as two Exclusion Zones in any given Scenario. Friendly units within an Exclusion Zone may be examined. You can issue most kinds of orders to them and they are considered normally supplied.
No unit may enter any location in an Exclusion Zone, although Air strikes may be launched into Excluded locations. Supply may not be traced through Exclusion Zones. Units in Exclusion Zones will not interfere with the movement of enemy units outside the Zone and will not “patrol” outside of the Exclusion Zone. Units outside of Exclusion Zones will not patrol locations inside of Exclusion Zones. Guerrilla activity has no effect within an Exclusion Zone.
Unlike Non-Playable Areas, Exclusion Zones may be removed during a Scenario.
This is the movement of Naval units through Deep Water or Anchorage locations. Units conducting naval movement are subject to interdiction attacks by in-range air units set to Sea Interdiction missions and by naval/coastal gun units within gunnery range of the movement. A naval icon in the Unit Panel shows eligibility for Naval Movement. Right-click on the icon to bring up the Unit Report and load the unit.
This is the movement of Air units from one Airbase to another. While Air units may attack any enemy with their range, their movement destinations are strictly limited to friendly Airbases. An Air icon in the Unit Panel shows eligibility for Air Movement. Right-click on the icon to bring up the Unit Report and load the unit.
This is the movement of Land units by train, along Rail lines. In order to use Railroad Movement, a unit must begin its Turn in a Railroad location, enough Rail Transport Capacity to lift the unit must be available, and the unit must be Entrained.
A Train icon in the Unit Panel shows eligibility for Rail Movement. Right-click on the icon to bring up the Unit Report and load the unit. See Embarked Status.
Units may move very large distances by Rail with no Movement Attrition or loss of Supplies and Readiness; however, they are vulnerable to enemy Air Interdiction and if they are railed past adjacent enemy units, they are subject to Disengagement attacks.
This is the movement of Land units through Deep Water or Anchorage locations. In most cases, Land units must be Embarked on Ships to move by sea. In order to use Seaborne Movement, your unit must begin its Turn in an Anchorage location and you must have enough Sealift Capacity to lift the unit. A Ship icon in the Unit Panel shows eligibility for Seaborne Movement. Click on the icon to bring up the Unit Report and load the unit on Ships. In some Scenarios, some units may have an independent Amphibious Capability via the Amphibious Icon and can always move using Seaborne Movement.
Units conducting seaborne movement are subject to interdiction attacks by in-range air units set to Sea Interdiction missions and by naval/coastal gun units within gunnery range of the movement.
This is the movement of Airborne-capable Land units while Embarked on Air Transports. In order to use Airborne Movement, your unit must begin its Turn in an Airbase location and you must have enough Airlift Capacity to lift the unit. Units may only board Aircraft if there are no enemy units in adjacent locations, or if there is another friendly unit present at the location, or. An Air Transport icon in the Unit Panel shows eligibility for Airborne Movement. Click on the icon to load the unit on an Aircraft.
An Airborne unit may disembark without ill effects on any friendly-controlled Airbase, or it may conduct an Airdrop on any other location that it could normally enter or attack. Often, the contents of the location will be unknown. If enemy units are discovered to be present at the time of the drop, your Airdropped unit will be destroyed unless the enemy units opt to retreat before combat.
Some equipment is too heavy to be moved by Transport Aircraft during the time period covered by the game. All non-Airborne-capable armored vehicles and Transport in excess of the bare minimum required by the unit for normal Land movement will be stripped from the unit and added to your Replacement Pool for later redistribution.
Headquarters units may Airdrop only into friendly-controlled territory.
Airborne units are subject to equipment losses and possible arbitrary division into sub-units during Airdrops and may be scattered outside their intended destination location in smaller (five to ten kilometers) scale Scenarios. Poor terrain (Forests, Jungle, Badlands, Mountains, Urban, etc.) and environmental factors (bad weather, night) can have a strong negative effect on Airdropped units. If the enemy has Air units with Air Superiority missions, your units may also suffer Attrition from enemy Interception. It is usually best to avoid Airdrops in the face of significant enemy air opposition.
This is the movement of Helicopter and Airmobile-capable Land units while embarked on Helicopters. In order to use Airmobile Movement, your unit must either be a Helicopter unit itself or it must begin its Turn within 200 kilometers of Helicopter Transport units with enough combined Airmobile Transport Capacity to lift the entire unit. It is not necessary to be in the same location as a Helicopter Transport unit. An Airmobile Transport icon in the Unit Panel shows eligibility for Airmobile Movement. Click on the icon to load the unit on the Helicopter unit. Any Helicopter units providing Airmobile Transport for a unit have their Movement Allowances reduced to zero for the Turn. A unit may not provide Airmobile Transport if it has moved.
It is important to note that assigning Transport HH equipment to a unit will grant it the ability to lend its Airlift Capacity to any friendly units using Airmobile Movement. This can have unintended consequences if other units use Airmobile Movement nearby, as this will immobilize the unit which provided the Airlift Capacity. It is generally best to only assign Transport HH equipment to units with the Transport Helicopter unit icon, or to Headquarters that are expected to remain relatively stationary.
Helicopter units may only move to friendly controlled locations. This restriction does not apply to Airmobile units using Airmobile Movement, which can enter and even pass through enemy occupied locations.
Units using Airmobile Movement are subject to Interception by enemy aircraft flying Air Superiority missions, and to anti-aircraft fire from enemy units that they fly over.
An Airmobile unit may disembark without any ill effects in any playable location not occupied by enemy units. If it disembarks onto an enemy unit, an Airmobile assault is immediately conducted.
Unlike Airborne units, Airmobile units are not subject to Scattering or Drop Attrition when disembarking in enemy territory. Units using Airmobile Movement automatically disembark when they reach the end of their Movement Allowance, if you end your Turn, or if you select another unit. Disembarked Airmobile units have ½ their original Movement Allowance.
If an Airmobile Assault goes badly, or if for some other reason the unit has to end its movement without disembarking, the unit will be returned to its original location. Depending upon the reason for the failure, the unit may suffer substantial losses – particularly to heavier weapons. In some cases, it may be possible to pick the unit up and immediately launch another Airmobile Movement and Assault, but this is usually not a good idea.
Helicopters and Equipment transported by helicopters now take less damage. You need an air superiority ratio (including local AA) of 4:1 to be safe. With lesser ratios, the casualties will mount quickly. Previous safe level was 10:1.
Helicopters are treated differently from regular traffic. They are very durable, but prone to damage. Damaged helicopters, and equipment transported by them, will go into the replacement pool instead of being destroyed. Damage is based on Enemy versus Friendly Air Superiority, and has enemy AA added if AA spotted them. Friendly and Enemy AA units don’t have a direct effect on casualties, only on whether damage occurs.
Whether an attack occurs depends on whether the Enemy has noticed the hex, an electronic support check, how much Low AA Fire they might be subject to, and the unit density in the hex. This means that you should fly over jungles and wilderness, not the enemy concentrations!
An embarked unit (regardless of transport mode; e.g., Train, Ship, or Plane) displays an embarked “stairstep” button icon in the Unit Panel. In most cases, you can disembark by clicking in the embarked button, or from the General Unit Orders popup menu. Additionally, a special “embarked” 2D icon replaces the unit’s normal 2D unit symbol icon in the Unit Panel (the actual icon displayed depends on the Transport mode; see the 2D icon symbol chart later in this manual).
Once a unit has expended Movement Points using an embarked type of Transport Mode, it is usually restricted in its ability to move by normal Land movement on the Turn that it disembarks. See Seaborne Movement, Airmobile Movement, and Amphibious Attacks for more information on attacking, and attacks by, Embarked units.
Movement Costs and Allowances
For a unit to enter a location, it must have enough remaining Movement Allowance. If a unit has not moved or attacked previously in the Turn, it can always move at least once into any allowed location regardless of cost. Unit Movement Allowances are based on the Supply levels and equipment assigned, and the Scenario physical and time scales.
Land Unit Movement Costs
Movement costs along roads vary from 1 to 3, depending upon the number of Vehicles and Horse Teams already in the location. Mud increases movement costs along unimproved roads by 1.
The minimum standard cost for a Land unit to enter most allowed locations is based on the unit’s movement category, as follows:
- Minimum Standard Cost (foot or mixed movement): 1
- Minimum Standard Cost (motorized movement): 2
(Advanced Rules) Even the presence of friendly units in a location can increase the standard cost for entering that location. The exact amount of the cost increase is dependent on the number of Vehicles and Horse Teams already there and affects Motorized units more strongly than other types. Units with Military Police can reduce these movement cost increases. If there are already nine units in the location, or if there are any enemy units there, the movement is not allowed. If there are fewer than nine friendly units in the location, the maximum standard cost for entry is based on the unit’s movement category:
(Advanced Rules) Maximum Standard Cost (foot or mixed movement): 3
(Advanced Rules) Maximum Standard Cost (motorized movement): 6
Additional Land Movement Costs
Some terrain types prohibit movement or impose additional costs for entry, as follows:
- Alpine: Not allowed, except along a Road or Improved Road
- Any Forest: +2
- Arid: No effect
- Badlands: Mixed or Motorized movement not allowed; Mountain units +2, all others x3
- Bocage/Hedgerow: +2
- Broken Railroad: No effect; may not be used for Rail Movement
- Canal: Amphibious units, no effect. All others +2, see River Movement Costs and Ferry Support
- Contaminated Terrain: Adds 50% to the total Movement Point cost of moving into the hex. This will prevent the unit from moving through more than one contaminated hex per Turn.
- Cropland: +1
- Dunes: Mixed or Motorized movement not allowed; Mountain units +2, all others x3
- Across Escarpment: Mountain units +1, all others +2
- Across Major Escarpment: Mountain units +2, all others not allowed
- Deep Water: Not allowed, except along a Road or Improved Road
- Dense Urban/Ruined Dense Urban: +1
- Enemy Adjacent: 12.5% to 25% of the original Movement Allowance. This depends on the unit’s Reconnaissance Capability. This penalty is doubled if the unit is moving from one such location to another. The cost is assessed upon leaving a hex adjacent to the enemy, not upon entering it. This amount is scaled by the Force ZOC scalar in the Editor.
- Enemy-Controlled Terrain: Up to 10% of original Movement Allowance. This depends on the unit’s Reconnaissance Capability. This cost also applies throughout the entire Turn in which a location first becomes friendly controlled. This amount is scaled by the Enemy Hex Conversion Costs scalar in the Editor.
- Flooded Marsh: Amphibious units +2, all others not allowed unless the hex is Frozen.
- (Advanced Rules) Frozen Canal or Frozen Suez Canal, Frozen River or Frozen Super River, or Frozen Shallow Water: No effect. Land units may move into Frozen Shallow Water locations. Supply may be traced through Frozen Shallow Water locations as if they were Open terrain. If a unit is on a Frozen Shallow Water or a Frozen Super River location when the location thaws, the unit will automatically move to an adjacent location if possible. If there is no adjacent location to which the unit could be moved, it will instead evaporate – and all equipment assigned to the unit is lost. Therefore, it is important to keep an eye on your Weather Report as Spring approaches to avoid losing units deployed on Frozen Shallow Water or Frozen Super River locations.
- Hills: Mountain units no effect, Mixed and Motorized movement +2, all others +1
- Jungle: +3
- Light Woods: +1
- Marsh: +2
- Mountain: Mountain units +1, all others +2
- Mud: Foot movement + 2, all others +3
- Non-Playable: Not allowed [exception: Air units]
- Railroad: No effect, unless using Rail Movement
- River: Amphibious units, no effect. All others +2, see River Movement Costs and Ferry Support.
- Rocky: Foot movement + 1, all others +2
- Sand: +1
- Snow: Motorized Movement+3, ski no effect, all others +2
- Unfrozen Shallow Water: Not allowed
- Unfrozen Super River or Suez Canal: Amphibious units’ cost is 2, all others not allowed
- Urban: No effect
- Wadi: Mountain units no effect, Motorized and Mixed movement +2, all others +1
River Movement Costs
Rivers and Canals (as opposed to super rivers or Suez Canal) normally add 2 to the cost of entering a location. There are exceptions, as follows:
- Amphibious units are exempt from River Movement costs
- If the total minor ferry capability in the location (including that of the moving unit) is greater than 20%, the moving unit is exempt from River Movement costs.
- If the total minor ferry capability in the location (including that of the moving unit) is greater than 10%, the River adds only one point to the Movement Cost. Total Ferry Strengths less than 10% have no effect on River Movement.
Naval units, and Land units using Sea Transport, may enter any Anchorage or Deep-Water location at a cost of 1. No other locations are allowed.
Airborne Movement Costs
Units using Air Transport may enter any location at a cost of 1.
Railroad Movement Costs
Units using Rail Transport may enter any friendly owned connected Rail Location at a cost of 1.
Airmobile Movement Costs
Units using Airmobile Transport may enter any location not occupied by enemy units at a cost of 1. Locations occupied by enemy units cost 3.
This feature is intended to allow motorized infantry to shed motorized transport and thus become foot infantry – allowing it to enter and conduct combat into locations barred to motorized units by certain terrain (dunes, badlands, etc.). The feature is accessed via the Unit Report. Below the “Special Abilities” area there is a check box to affect the dismount IF the unit contains any motorized transport. Upon clicking the checkbox, the motorized transport is removed from the unit and sent to the “On Hand” pools. The unit is now tagged as “Dismounted”.
Dismounting if Unsupplied
The option to dismount remains available even if the unit is unsupplied. But if you effect that option while the unit is unsupplied, the motorized transport is not sent to the “On Hand” pools. Rather, it is sent to the dead pile where it is permanently lost.
Resume Motorized Movement
In order to resume motorized movement, the unit must first be restored to “mounted” status. To do so, click the Dismount check box back to off. Then, the unit will start to receive motorized transport as replacements in subsequent inter-turn phases. If the box is left in “dismounted” status, no such replacements will be received (leaving the unit in foot mode).
Static Equipment and Dismounting
If the unit contains Static equipment (towed artillery mostly), then if the transport in the unit had been removed while the artillery remained, the unit would have been switched to a MP of 1 – not what was intended. So, this feature also removes any Static equipment as well.
There can be instances where a unit consists entirely of motorized transport and/or Static equipment. In that case, dismounting the unit will have the same effect as disbanding it.
Sub-Units and Dismounting
If sub-units have been dismounted, then recombination will only result in a dismounted parent if all sub-units were dismounted.
General Notes and Examples
While the primary purpose of the feature is to allow motorized infantry to temporarily operate as foot infantry, other uses can be imagined. For example, it might be used to protect trucks from unnecessary losses in combat by dismounting just prior to combat execution.
It could also be used by designers to model a mostly foot army with some, short term, trucking ability. All infantry could have trucks in their TO&E, but then all be dismounted. Then, if there was only a small amount of trucks available in the pools, an occasional unit could mount-up for a swift transfer to another area, then return the trucks back to the pools by dismounting.
Skipping the Unit Movement Pop-up
The Menu Show Delay (Advanced Player Option) allows players to skip the popup when they move units. If it is set to a value greater than one, the most likely task will be executed automatically – skipping the popup. If the player wants to use the popup instead, he can hold the right button down until the delay expires, then make his selection.
Note that setting the delay to one turns the feature off – the popup will always appear. Note that to expedite this feature, formerly “grayed out” items on the popup have now been removed instead.
Typically, this means that clicking the right mouse button will move the unit to the location or set it to attack, if there is an adjacent enemy unit in the target location. To move a group, entrain, plan the attack, etc., just hold the right mouse button down until the delay expires.
After completing the move, the active unit is automatically advanced to the next unit in the stack – unless the Advanced Player Option “Moving Selects Next Unit” option has been turned off. This option has no effect if the “Menu Show Delay” feature is turned off (the moved unit always remains the active unit, like in older versions of TOAW).
If the Advanced Player Option “Menu Show Delay” option is set to one, this feature is turned off.
Programmed Opponent (PO) Assist
his feature allows the PO to take control of as many friendly formations as the player desires. Formations that he wants to control himself can be set to “Manual” orders (the old “Fixed” orders renamed).
Note the four new Control Panel Buttons above. These are shown on the bottom row of the Reports Tab of the Button Panel. If the Original Control Panel is active, they are only shown if the eighth option on Page 2 of the Advanced Rules Options (see above) is “On”. The first is the “Formation PO Tracks” Button. It will show the PO Tracks for the current formation. Note: this is a graphical display of the track.
The second is the “all PO Tracks” Button. It will show the PO Tracks for all formations. Again, note that this is a graphical display of the tracks. The third is the “PO Mode” Button. It will switch the program to place objectives mode. This will show the current formation’s objectives as x, y points. Objectives can be changed in this mode. The fourth is the “move PO” Button. It will cause the PO to move units.
Pressing F12 or clicking on the ‘start circle’ or Pressing \ or clicking the “PO Mode” Button also causes the program to switch to the deployment place objectives mode. The maximum Number of Objectives per track is 99.
Pressing F in this mode brings up the formation dialog allowing you to set the states, including letting the human have control of a formation. <shift>-F12 or Pressing | or clicking the “move PO” Button causes the PO to move and set up attacks, but not execute them.
A typical sequence would be: Press \, press F12, click on the circle, or click the “PO Mode” button to switch to the objective’s mode.
Press / or the “Formation PO Tracks” button (alternate: ? or the “all PO Tracks” button) to see the current objectives graphically.
Select various formations and Change or Update the objectives as desired.
Press F to change the formation orders. Set formations you want to control yourself to “Manual”.
Press \, click on the circle or the “PO Mode” button to switch out of objectives mode. Press | or the “move PO” button to have Elmer move.
Move the units you want to move. Hit E followed by 1 to execute the attacks/end the turn.
Note that there is an “Elmer Assist Primer” document available in the Manuals folder that gives more detail on using this feature.
With TOAW IV, several additional features have been added to further help with the use of this feature:
The Formation OOB dialog lists all friendly formations and how they are programmed. There are check-boxes to easily toggle whether each formation is PO controlled or not.
When PO Mode is active, units of PO controlled formations have a purple band on them – to easily identify which units will be PO controlled.
While PO Mode is active, double clicking on any unit will toggle that unit’s formation in and out of PO control.
While in PO Mode, PO Objectives can be re positioned by dragging.
The X hotkey saves a “scenario name.AI” file. Note that use of the PO Assist feature can enable the player to optimize the formation objectives (in a sort of “survival of the fittest” fashion). This optimization could be useful to the scenario design itself. This file contains the AI objective paths, thereby enabling their import into the scenario in the Editor. If saved to any folder in the graphical hierarchy for the scenario, it will be reloaded whenever the scenario is run or loaded into the editor (be careful about this, designers). It also contains three settings for PO attack-odds limits as follows:
- Threshold1: This is the odds (x10) required for the PO to prosecute an attack with at least 7 rounds completed or if the Max Rounds per Battle is set. The default is 10 (1:1)
- Threshold2: This is the odds (x10) required for Elmer to prosecute an attack with at least 5 rounds completed. The default is 20 (2:1)
- Threshold3: This is the odds (x10) required for Elmer to prosecute an attack with at least 0 rounds completed. The default is 30 (3:1)
There is also a separate set of thresholds for the Berserk Strategic Bias. These settings would allow players or designers to fine-tune the PO in their scenario a bit more. But the file must be edited in an XML editor (like XmlPad). See the “Red Thunder 1988” folder for an example of an .AI file.