TOAW IV: Creating scenarios

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Creating Scenarios with the Scenario Editor

The standard game Scenarios were all created using the Scenario Editor included with the program. Designing all but the simplest of Scenarios is quite a bit of work, but if you have the historical references and inclination, there is no reason why you could not create a Scenario. All Editor functions are available through the Edit Menu.

The Scenario

  • The Scenario is a complete description of a historical battle or campaign, comprising the following elements in this section:
  • An Order of Battle describing the two opposing Forces: This is created using the Force Editor. Each Force may have up to 10,000 units (sub-units count against this total) in 1,000 Formations.
  • Deployments of the opposing Forces: These are defined using the Deployment Editor.
  • A Calendar: This is defined using the Calendar Editor.
  • An Environment: This is defined using the Environment Editor.
  • Replacements: Use the Replacement Editor to set equipment stockpiles and Replacement Rates.
  • Optionally, a Scenario may also include:

A Map

This is created using the Map Editor. Maps may be up to 700x700 locations in extent, with up to 4,000 named locations. The Map Editor display is divided into several areas: the windowpane, scroll panel, Map Panel, Information Panel, and the Control Panel (with the Current Terrain Display, Control Bar, Terrain Palette, etc.). If your window is large enough, there will also be Microview Panel.

Map Editor Control Panel

This panel is shown along the right side of the display. It is divided into three areas:

  • The Current Terrain Display shows the current terrain. The current terrain is shown in the upper right corner of the display. It is used to modify selected Map locations according to the Map Editor Draw Mode. You select the current terrain by clicking within the Terrain Palette.
  • The Control Bar: Undo, Scroll Terrain Palette Back, Scroll Terrain Palette Forward, and Editor Draw Mode Select [used to specify the action to be performed if you select a location in the Map Panel].
  • The Terrain Palette.

Map Editor Draw Mode

You select most Editor Draw Modes by clicking on the Draw Mode button in the Control Bar. The Draw Mode determines what happens when you left click in the Map Panel. You can also right click in the Map Panel to select a onetime draw mode from a popup menu for just that location. The popup menu has options as follows:

Point Draw

Any single location selected in the map will be modified. If the location already contains the current terrain, your click will manually make or break a terrain connection to the nearest location side. If the location does not contain the current terrain, the current terrain will be added, and all possible location side connections will automatically be established.

Blob Draw

Any single location and its surrounding six locations will be filled with the current terrain.

Line Draw

A line of locations from the last selected location to the most recently selected location will be filled with the current terrain.

Fill Draw

An area bounded by the current terrain will be filled with the current terrain.

Erase Draw

If the location contains the current terrain, it will be removed.

Place Name

You can enter a name for the selected location.

Draw Border

You can draw a permanent border graphic on the map. It can be helpful to turn the hex grid overlay off when placing borders.

Distance (available only from the right click popup menu)

You can set a Distance Value for the location. Bombardment missions against or from distant hexes adds the distance value to the bombardment range. The maximum distance is 254, and the minimum (and default) is 0.

Blow/Repair Bridges (available only from the right click popup menu)

You can repair or blow bridges in the location.

Set Entrenchment (available only from the right click popup menu)

You can set the Entrenchment Level of the location to a value ranging from 0 to 100.

Set Exclusion Zone 1 or 2 (available only from the right click popup menu)

You can set an Exclusion Zone. The area is effectively non-playable in the game but may be removed by an Event.

How to Edit a Map

Creating a Map is a matter of selecting terrain types and clicking within the Map Panel to place the terrain onto the Map. As you draw, the Map’s features are automatically contoured or connected. You can override the automatically selected contour or connections in Point Draw mode by clicking within the location to make or break new connections. You may also choose to turn Auto-Contouring OFF from the Edit Drop Down Menu.

A Sample Map Editing Session

Maximize the window. Move your mouse cursor over the Map Editor Draw Mode button and make sure it is set to the Point Draw mode. Click on the Scroll Terrain Palette Forward button in the Control Bar to see all available tiles in the Terrain Palette. Repeated clicks will continue to scroll through the available terrain types.

Select a terrain type from the Terrain Palette. Left click within the Map Panel. You will see the selected location fill with the current terrain. Now left click on an adjacent location; that location will also fill with the current terrain and connections will automatically be established between the two locations. Now, left click near a hexagonal boundary between two connected locations. The connection will be broken. Left click again and the connection will be reestablished.

Left click on an empty location. Now, click the Undo button. The location you filled will be restored to its original condition. Now, click on the Editor Draw Mode button in the Control Bar; it will change to the Blob Draw mode. Left click on an empty area of the Map. A seven-location area centered on the location you selected will fill with the current terrain.

Click on the Editor Draw Mode button to select the Line Draw mode. Now, left click on any location in the Map Panel. A line of locations from the last selected location will be filled with the current terrain. Draw a few more lines until they completely enclose an area of the map.

Click on the Editor Draw Mode button to select the Fill Draw mode. Now, left click on an empty location within the area you outlined previously. The region will fill with the current terrain [exception: you cannot fill with “Clear” terrain].

The terrain being used to “fill” must be the same terrain type used to create the enclosed area (otherwise the entire map area will be “filled”, and you will want to quickly “undo”).

Click on the Editor Draw Mode button to change to the Erase Draw mode. Now, left click on a location containing the current terrain. The terrain will be removed from the location.

You may also right-click on Map locations. The effect is like left clicking, except that you may select a drawing action from a popup menu. This is more flexible than left clicking but depending on the kind of editing you are doing at the time, it can require more mouse clicks to do the same job.

You should have a simple Map on screen now.

Move your mouse cursor to the Scroll Frame to scroll the map.

Generally, you should “rough in” your Map first, clicking to drop terrain on the Map and allowing the automatic terrain linking function to connect the tiles for the best display. Draw coastlines first, followed by isolated major terrain features. Once you have the basic terrain drawn, you can return to the point draw mode to click within locations (near edges) to manually make and break terrain connections. This will generally be necessary for linear features such as Roads, Rivers, and Railroads.

Once your Map is fully defined, you can use Edit Map Boundaries to fix its size. These Map Boundary functions can also clip margins or insert additional space along edges if you need it.

Be sure to save your work frequently!

Alternate Place Name Fonts and Bitmaps

#1, #2 or #3 in a placename selects the alternate Placename font 1, 2 or 3. These are three optional placename fonts in addition to the standard placename font. The actual fonts are set in the “Opart 3 fonts.ini” file or in the Fonts Editor Dialog (see 3.3.4.4.). The Standard Font is 10 size, gold (perhaps for normal cities). The  optional placename fonts are as follows:

#1 = Large 20 Size Gold Font (perhaps for large cities).

#2 = Standard 10 Size Blue Font (perhaps for terrain features, such as Rivers or Lakes).

#3 = Small 7 Size Gold Font (perhaps for small cities).

Anyone may revise these fonts however they desire within their own “Opart 4 fonts.ini” file to suit their own tastes.

<1 thru <9 in a placename selects the Map Optional 1 thru 9 bitmaps. You can select multiple bitmaps. (There are nine placename bitmaps provided in the Graphics folder – designers can make their own if they prefer). These optional  placename bitmaps are as follows:

<1 Factory

<2 Refinery

<3 Manpower Center

<4 Oil Field

<5 Mineral site

<6 Reforger site

<7 Yellow Diamond

<8 Red Star

<9 Stop Sign

They are situated within the hexes so that some can be combined on the same hex without overlap.

Again, designers can create their own bitmaps to substitute for any of the above. Note that, like any other graphical file, they follow the folder hierarchy rules.

Note that the “Opart 4 fonts.ini” file contains a collection of fonts as follows:

  1. Document Font
  2. Medium Font
  3. Dialog Medium Font
  4. Equipment Dialog Medium Font
  5. Small Font
  6. Objective Font
  7. ToolTip Font
  8. Supply Font
  9. Small Supply Font
  10. Huge Supply Font
  11. Map Font
  12. Small Map Font
  13. Huge Map Font
  14. Placename Font
  15. Placename1 Font
  16. Placename2 Font
  17. Placename3 Font
  18. Small Placename Font
  19. Small Placename1 Font
  20. Small Placename2 Font
  21. Small Placename3 Font
  22. Huge Placename Font
  23. Huge Placename1 Font
  24. Huge Placename2 Font
  25. Huge Placename3 Font
  26. Button Tab Font
  27. Unit Info Small Font
  28. Unit Info Medium Font
  29. Unit Info Value Font
  30. Unit Info Fixed Font
  31. Status Bar Font
  32. Fixed Status Bar Font
  33. Title Screen Font
  34. Title Font
  35. Subtitle Font
  36. Wide Button Font
  37. Text Button Font
  38. Editor Font
  39. Editor Equipment Font

The Graphics Scaling parameter up scales many of the graphics. Values greater than one make things bigger. Values less than one make things smaller.  This is intended to address issues created by 4K screens.

The 'HugeIcon' parameter will show up once you launch the new version and close it. It changes the icon on the unit panel to be a huge 2D view.

Simple Map Import/Export (partial maps)

You can edit a map’s exported xml file to enable it to export a part of the map – then import that part to a location in a different map. It’s recommended to use even steps (2, 4, 6, 8) for the X and Y axes to avoid artifacts. Min and max define the map size of the area to import. There is an article on the Matrix TOAW board that describes how to do partial map export/import here:

http://www.matrixgames.com/forums/tm.asp?m=1797874

Force Editor

The Force Editor is used to create a complete Order of Battle (an organized list of all units and Formations) for a Scenario and can be reached by clicking Edit and selecting Forces.

The Force Editor display is implemented as a fixed size window. It is divided into four regions:

  • The Window Frame
  • The Unit Control Panel
  • The General Control Panel
  • The Information Panel.

The information and displays within the General Control Panel change depending upon your general editing focus. Many special-purpose global Force modification functions are available in the Edit menu.

This setting affects the General Control Panel display on the right side of the Force Editor.

Be aware that if a force contains any subdivided units its OOB can’t be modified. That means you can’t insert, cut, paste, copy, move, or delete any units within the OOB. To restore that ability all subdivided units must be recombined. Moral: Don’t subdivide any units until you have the OOB finished.

The strength values displayed on the Unit Icons, while based upon the cumulative strengths of the equipment the units are composed of, are relative values. They are scaled relative to the largest strength of any unit of either side in the game. That strength is scaled so that it equals 31 and all other strengths are scaled relative to that. There is an exception in that strengths of naval units are ignored for this purpose. (Fleet units often swamped this scalar in early scenario designs, making all other units in the game have very small displayed strengths). The scaling value is saved in the scenario file and does not vary during the game.

Designers should be aware of this factor. If most of your units appear to have very small displayed strengths, then you probably have some disproportionately large unit in one of the forces. To rectify that situation, that unit should be split up in some fashion.

Force Editor Definitions

The Force Editor Editing Focus:

Available Systems: This shows a list of all available weapon systems in the game’s database. Current Force: This shows a complete list of all units in the current Force.

Current Formation: This shows all information for the current Formation.

You can change the Editing Focus by clicking on the buttons at the bottom of the General Control Panel. Keep your eye on the Info Bar at the bottom of the screen for Mouse-Over info.

The Unit Control Panel:

This is the square area on the left of the Force Editor display. It always shows a description of the current unit.

At the top of the Panel you will find the Unit Name button. Click here to change the unit’s name.

Just below are the Unit Size Symbol button, the Unit Icon Colors button, and the Unit Icon Type button. All these buttons control the graphic appearance of the unit icon on the map and can influence play. The size symbol and icon type buttons are used to set NATO standard military symbols for the unit’s map appearance. Some icon types confer specific abilities on the unit. See 16.1.1. for additional information on unit icons available and their effects. The selection of unit icon colors can also influence play depending on the Support Level, as the command and control rules key on the color selections you make for your units. Click on any of these buttons to bring up a self-explanatory selection dialog.

Alternate Icon:

A unit can be assigned an alternate icon type, in addition to its primary icon type. The two icons combine their properties. So, for example, designers can create a Marine unit that is heli-portable or an airborne mountain unit. Also, if a parachute unit has an alternate icon that is also a parachute icon, it will retain airborne ability after being rebuilt. Click just to the left of the primary icon and the icon dialog will pop up. Select the alternate icon from that dialog. It will be displayed next to the primary icon.

To remove the alternate icon, pop up the dialog the same way again and hit <esc>. The primary icon is the one that will be displayed on the map counter in the game. But both are displayed in the Unit Report.

Within the row of buttons along the top of the panel is a short text description of the current unit.

These numbers show the unit’s current Strengths and Movement Allowance. Unit-displayed Strengths are scaled on the fly as you make changes to units. This means that you may see fluctuations in the displayed Strengths of your units as you create the first few units in a Force. This is normal and will not occur in the game since the scaling constant is fixed when a Scenario is loaded.

In the center of the panel is a list of all equipment currently assigned or authorized for the unit. In some cases, the assigned and authorized numbers may not match. Right click on the equipment buttons for information about the equipment. Left click to change the amount of equipment assigned to the unit. There are slots for a maximum of 24 equipment systems per unit.

At the bottom of the Unit Control Panel is a row of buttons. From left to right, these are:

  • Previous unit
  • Next unit
  • Scroll Equipment List Up and Down
  • Current Unit Characteristics: Used to set the unit Proficiency, Readiness, and Supply Levels, and preset the Range to some value other than nominal.
  • Copy current unit: Makes a copy of the current unit and makes the copy the new current unit.
  • Delete current unit: Removes the current unit from the Force.

General Control Panel

This is the square area to the right of the Force Editor display. Depending upon the Editor scope, it always shows a list of available systems, current Force, or current Formation.

Available Systems Control Panel: This shows a list of all weapon systems available in the game’s database. To aid in rapid location of specific systems, the list is organized into the following categories:

  • Infantry & Support Troops
  • Guns & Mortars
  • Self-Propelled Guns & Mortars
  • Rockets & Missiles
  • Anti-Aircraft Weapons
  • Reconnaissance Vehicles
  • Transports
  • APC’s & IFV’s
  • Anti-Tank Vehicles
  • Tanks
  • Ships
  • Helicopters
  • Fixed Wing Aircraft
  • New Equipment

Equipment Modification

The list of Available Equipment is contained in the Equipment.eqp file in the Graphics folder. The Equipment Database stored in the Equipment.eqp file can be edited via any of several user made editors (example: BioEd/Notepad++) to customize the Available Systems for specific scenarios. The edited file should be saved in the scenario’s sub-folder in the Graphics folder. There is a “How to” document in the Manuals folder that details how to use the BioEd to revise the database. However, TOAW IV has a build-in [#Equipment Editor|Equipment Editor]].

The number of Available Equipment items in the existing database is 5000 items. Well over half of those are Spare Equipment and thus ready for editing.

In addition, there is an Equipment.nqp file that stores a collection of naval parameters for the database as well. This file can also be designer edited and stored in the scenario’s sub-folder.

The contents of both of those files are now stored in the scenario file (.sce), the save file (.sal), and the PBEM file (.pbl). This means that the files don’t have to be provided by the designer to the players. But if anyone desires to edit the scenario, they will need the files. Therefore, the F11 key in the Editor will regenerate both files to the main menu, if they aren’t otherwise available.

You can quickly jump to the start of any category by clicking anywhere to the right of the system buttons.

Left click on a system to authorize and assign it to the current unit. A window will pop up asking you how many of the systems you wish to authorize for the unit.

When you make this selection, you are setting the authorized level of equipment for the unit. This represents a normal maximum number of the systems in the unit rather than the current assigned number.

Since in most cases the assigned and authorized quantities will be closely matched during Scenario design, the Editor automatically assigns the authorized quantity of equipment to the unit. A similar button in the Unit Control Panel sets the assigned quantity, which may be more or fewer than the authorized quantity. As in the Unit Control Panel, a right-click on a system button will bring up an information display for the selected equipment type.

Note: To remove an equipment item from the unit’s TO&E, you must set the Authorized value to zero from within the Available Systems Panel. Setting the Assigned value to zero within the Unit Control Panel will leave the equipment in the unit, just with zero assigned.

At the bottom of the Available Systems panel is a row of buttons. From left to right, these are:

  • Scroll to Previous Weapon
  • Scroll to Next Weapon
  • Display Current Force: Switch the Editor scope to Current Force.
  • Display Current Formation: Switch the editor scope to Current Formation.
  • Switch Forces: Change the current Force from one side to the other.
  • Exit Force Editor: Return to the Map Editor.

Current Force Control Panel

This shows a list of all units defined for the current force. At the top of the panel is the Force Name button. Click here to change the name of the current Force.

Below the Force Name button is a list of units in the current Force. The current unit is indicated by white text. To the left of each unit button is an assignment button showing either “unassigned” or the name of the Formation the unit is assigned to.

Left click on any unit name button to make it the current unit. Right-click on a unit name button to cut it from the Force for later pasting. To paste the cut unit, move the mouse to where you wish to insert it and right click again. If you accidentally cut a unit, you can drop it back in its proper place by right clicking again without moving the mouse.

Left click on an Assignment button to change a unit’s Formation Assignment. The effects will vary. If the unit is currently assigned, it and all following units of the same Formation will become unassigned. If the unit is unassigned, it and all following unassigned units will be either attached to an existing Formation or assigned to a new Formation (your choice).

Right-click on an Assignment button to cut that Formation from the Force. To paste the just-cut Formation back into the Force, move the cursor to where you want to insert it and right-click again. Note that if you Cut a Formation you will lose its Deployment and Objectives.

At the bottom of the Current Force Control Panel is a row of buttons. From left to right, these are:

  • A flag. Use it to change the national flag of the Force.
  • Scroll to Previous Unit
  • Scroll to Next Unit
  • Display Weapons: Switch the Editor scope to Available Systems.
  • Display Current Formation: Switch the editor scope to Current Formation.
  • Switch Forces: Change the current Force from one side to the other.
  • Exit Force Editor: Return to the Map Editor.

Current Formation Control Panel

This shows all available information for the current Formation. At the top of the panel you will find the Formation Name and Support Level buttons. Click on the Formation Name button to change the name of the current Formation. Click on the Formation Support Level button to change the Formation’s Support Level.

Below the Name and Support buttons is the list of units assigned to the current Formation. Click on any Unit Name button to make that unit the current unit. To the right of each unit name is an abbreviated list of unit Strengths and Movement Allowances. There may be more units than will fit within the display area. If so, you can scroll the unit list using the scroll buttons to the right of the unit list. There is space for a maximum of 32 units per formation. Sub-units count against this total, so if you fill the formation with 32 units, those units will not be able to subdivide. Best to keep far less than 32 units in the formation to allow some room for units to subdivide.

At the bottom of the Current Formation Control Panel is a row of buttons. From left to right, these are:

  • Previous Formation
  • Next Formation
  • Display Current Force: Switch the editor scope to Current Force.
  • Display Weapons: Switch the editor scope to Available Systems.
  • Formation Proficiency
  • Formation Supply Distribution Efficiency
  • Exit Force Editor: Return to the map editor.

The Previous and Next Formation buttons are used to flip through your formations one at a time. Use the display weapons button to switch the editor scope to Available Systems. The Display Current Force button will switch the Editor scope to Current Force. Click on the Switch Forces button to change the current force from one side to the other. And select the exit force editor button to return to the map editor.

How to Edit a Force

From the Edit menu, select the Forces menu item to access the Force Editor window. Let’s create a unit. Move your mouse cursor over to the Available Systems Control Panel and click within the panel to the right of the Weapon System buttons.

Select the Tanks button. This will quickly drop to that part of the database. Now, move your mouse cursor down to the Scroll to Next Weapon System button and right click to scroll by an entire page. You should be looking at a list of French and German armored equipment. If not, scroll around using the Next / Previous buttons until you see a button labeled PzKpfw 35t. Click on this button.

A “How Many” window will appear. Using your keyboard, enter the number 39. Now, use the same procedure to add 30 PzKpfw IIB, 13 PzKpfw I, and 6 PzKpfw IVd. You have just authorized the equipment for a typical 1940 mixed German Panzer battalion.

Now, click on the Name button at the top of the Unit Control Panel to change the name of the unit to “1st Panzer”.

Click on the Unit Size Symbol button and select the Battalion symbol ( II ).

Click on the Unit Icon Colors button to select a medium gray icon with light gray interior.

If the Icon Type button to the right does not show a NATO standard armor symbol, click on it and select the symbol from the window that appears.

Move your mouse to the rows of buttons at the bottom of the Unit Control Panel and click on the Proficiency, Readiness, or Supply button to set those values for the unit.

That’s it! The 1st Panzer Battalion is now fully defined.

If you click on the Copy Unit button at the bottom of the display, copies of the unit will be created. Their name will be appended with a plus sign (+) at the end.

Click on the Display Current Force Button at the bottom of the Available Systems panel. The Force Control Panel will be displayed, and you will see your original “1st Panzer” Battalion, and the copies you made (as mentioned, copies are indicated by a “+” sign).

You can select each in turn (click on the name on the Force Panel; a selected unit’s name is shown in white; non-selected units are printed in yellow). This unit will become ‘active’ in the left-hand Unit Control Panel; from here you can click the Name button and rename your unit. Do this with each copy you created.

Now, click on the top Unassigned button, next to your 1st Panzer unit, in the Force Control Panel. This will automatically assign all Unassigned units directly below that unit to the same Formation.

Note that if you click instead on the Unassigned Unit button for the bottom unit in the list, only that unit will be assigned to a Formation. To undo a Formation assignment (to “Unassign” a unit), you can left-click on the button listing the Formation name; to delete the unit, right-click on the same button.

If you clicked on the top “Unassigned” button, as instructed, all units should now be listed in the “1st Formation”.

If you wish, you can click on the Flag button at bottom left to assign the appropriate National Flag for the Force.

Click on the Display Current Formation button at the bottom of the display to change to the Formation Control Panel.

Click on the Formation Name button to change the name to 1st Panzer Rgt, and then click on the Formation Support Level button just to the right until it shows “Army Support”. Units of the Formation will now be free to act in concert with other units using the same icon colors, regardless of their parent Formations. This might be typical of an independent corps-level Panzer Regiment.

You can also use the Formation Proficiency and Supply Distribution Efficiency buttons to enter appropriate values for the Formation as a whole.

Click on the Display Weapons button to change the Editor Scope back to Available Systems.

Then click on the Switch Sides button. You can now define an opposing force (say French, 1940) in the same way.

Once all units for both sides have been fully defined and assigned to Formations, you are ready to deploy your Forces to the Map using the Deployment function.

The preceding example was set up to show how to create a simple Force. If you are creating a larger Force, it is usually most efficient to create several prototype units and make multiple copies of those to create all the units for your Force. For example, you might create one typical Infantry unit, a typical Armor unit, a typical Artillery unit, etc. Then, use the Unit Cut/Paste feature to create enough copies of your prototype units to flesh out your Force. It will ease your task if you arrange the units so that they are ready for organization into Formations. The limit on the Number of Units per Side is 10,000.

Group the units so that all you want assigned to the first Formation are at the top of the list, units of the second Formation next, etc. Then make any modifications necessary to individual units to customize them as needed for your Scenario – names, variations in equipment and Strengths, etc.

Finally, after all your units are created, assign them to Formations. The limit on the Number of Formations per Side is 1,000. Do one Force at a time. Be sure to save your work frequently!

Advanced Force Editor Functions

Many Advanced Editor features are available from the Edit > Modify Current Force, Modify Current Formation, and Modify Current Unit menu items. It is possible to modify all or part of a Force, including global search and replace unit and Formation renaming. Please see the description of the Edit menu for a brief description of these functions.

Equipment Editor

This editor is accessed (only) from the Available Systems Control Panel in the Force Editor. Right clicking on any Equipment Icon button there will bring up the Equipment Report for that item. At the bottom of that report is a button to launch the Equipment Editor (only present if invoked from that Panel).

Click on that button. The Equipment Editor (with a copy of that equipment item loaded) is launched. At the top of the Equipment Editor are two buttons that allow the Equipment Name and Country – Date to be edited. Below that there is a column of buttons on the left that allow all the Equipment Parameters to be edited. To the right of that are three columns of checkboxes that allow the 64 Equipment Flags to be toggled. Note that the Invalid flag can’t be edited. (The Invalid flag identifies the equipment category titles).

Clicking on the very first parameter button invokes the Silhouette Selection dialog. This shows all the silhouettes. The info panel has a description of each silhouette as the mouse passes over them. Clicking on a silhouette selects it.

Clicking on the second parameter button invokes the 3D Image Selection dialog. The current 3D Image is displayed. There are buttons to decrement and increment the image number, and a button to enter the image number. Putting the mouse over the image shows its description in the Info Panel. When the desired image is displayed, clicking the exit button selects it.

The Control Bar at the bottom has six standard buttons and one wide text button as follows:

  • Save Button: This saves the current equipment item to the Equipment List (memory only – saving to disk is further down). Forget this step and the edit is lost once you proceed on to another equipment item.
  • Decrement Button: Loads a copy of the equipment item one lower in the equipment list than the current item. This will erase the current edit (so save it first if you want to keep it).
  • Exit: This exits the Equipment Editor. This will erase the current edit (so save it first if you want to keep it). Note that, while there is some ability to move around in the equipment list within the Editor, temporarily returning to the Force Editor may give more control over that.
  • Increment Button: Loads a copy of the equipment item one higher in the equipment list than the current item. This will erase the current edit (so save it first if you want to keep it).
  • Copy Button: This copies the current equipment to the Paste Buffer. It stays there till the Force Editor is exited or the copy button is clicked again.
  • Paste Button: This pastes the contents of the Paste Buffer to the current equipment.
  • Equipment Number Button: This displays the equipment number and allows it to be edited.

To save the edits to disk, you must first exit the Equipment Editor [you must hit the Save Button first!]. Then, on the File pull-down, there is the “Save Equipment(XML) As…” option. Click on that option. The File Save dialog is invoked. Note that the file name is already correct with the scenario name and .eqp suffix, but you will most likely have to change the folder. That is accomplished within the folder path listing at the top of the dialog.

Once the .eqp file has been saved, it must then be incorporated into the scenario file. That is achieved by putting the .eqp file in the scenario specific named folder and saving the scenario. You can also save the file to the scenario specific named folder first, then save the scenario.

Environment Editor

The Environment Editor is accessed from the Edit menu. It is used to set the Scenario Environment, which includes the following elements:

  • Map Scale: Each Map location can be .25,  .5, 1, 2.5, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 50, 100 or 200 kilometers across. This affects game movement and the Map Size calculation used to determine the number and location of Weather Zones.
  • Climate Area: If the Map is large enough, it will be divided into as many as three Weather Zones. Set this value to select the direction from which warm and cold fronts arrive. Unless you wish to include weather systems (cold or warm fronts) in your Scenario, the equatorial setting should be used. Other than specifying weather front directions, this setting is not directly visible within the game, and has no direct bearing on game play.
  • Precipitation: Precipitation may be Heavy, Moderate, Light, Occasional, or None. This is a global likelihood value and can be modified by terrain.
  • Temperature: The temperature in any Weather Zone may be Frozen (levels 1 through 3), Cold, Cool, Moderate, Warm, or Hot. If your Map is zonal, this selection will be for the most extreme Zone (North for northern, South for southern, All for equatorial) with less extreme Zones being progressively warmer.

Climate Area is an advanced feature and need not be used in most cases. It is intended for use by advanced Scenario designers who wish to model things like cold and warm fronts, seasonal weather changes, etc. Proper use of Zone Polarity requires use of the Event Editor.

Mud Scalar Rules: The Default is 100. Change the scalar to 10000, a factor of x100, and mud dries out much faster. Set the scalar to 1, this divides by 100 (x 0.01), and mud dries out very slowly.

Weather Zones

If the Climate Area is set to Northern or Southern, and the Map is at least 600 kilometers from north to south, the Map will be divided into Weather Zones. The most extreme Zone in a Northern map is the Northern Zone, and the least extreme zone is the Southern Zone. The opposite is true for a Southern Map. To avoid Zonal effects, select an Equatorial Climate area.

On Zonal Maps, weather effects (triggered by Events – see 17.9., Event Editor) will progress from Zone to Zone. Cool fronts progress from the most extreme Zone to the least extreme Zone.

Warm fronts progress from the least extreme Zone to the most extreme zone. Depending upon the precipitation likelihood, storms may occur in one or more (possibly not all) zones as fronts pass through.

Table 1: Weather Zones (Northern or Southern Climate Areas)

North to South Zones

0-599 km 1

600-1199 km 2

1200+ km 3

Weather Zone Panes

If your Scenario has more than one Weather Zone, you can set separate starting values for precipitation (Rain or Snow), visibility (Cloudiness), and temperatures for each Zone.

Calendar Editor

The Calendar Editor is accessed from the Edit menu. It is used to set the Scenario Calendar, which includes the following elements:

  • Turn Length: Turn length can be 1 hour, 3 hours, 6 hours, half day, full day, half week, full week, 2 week, monthly, seasonal, and annual. This affects Movement, Weather progression, and the availability of day/night effects.
  • Start Hour: This value is meaningful only if the Turn length setting is less than “Full Day.” AM Turns are daylight Turns for half-day turn intervals. PM Turns are night Turns for half day turn intervals. For 6-hour turn intervals, the hours are Pre-dawn, Morning, Afternoon, and Night. Note that these descriptions are only shown in the Info Panel. The Predawn and Morning hours both show as AM on the Start Hour button. The Afternoon and Night hours both show as PM on the Start Hour button. Morning and Afternoon hours are Day. Night and Predawn hours are Night.
  • Start Day: This is the date of the first Turn of the Scenario. You can set any valid day, but if the Turn length is half week or full week subsequent dates will be rounded to appropriate values.
  • Start Month: This is the first month of the Scenario.
  • Start Year: This is the first year of the Scenario.
  • Last Turn: This is the nominal last Turn of the Scenario. Normally, a Scenario will not end before this Turn. It is possible that the Scenario can be longer. This value can be modified during play by the Event Editor.

Event Editor

Warning: The Event Engine is very complex! It was designed for optional use by advanced Scenario designers. An Event List is essentially a computer program designed to be executed by an interpreter called the Event Engine. You need not use the Event Editor for your Scenarios, and its use is not recommended for first time Scenario Designers.

Introduction to the Event Engine

The Event Editor is used to define the Event List for a Scenario. Any Scenario may have a maximum of 10,000 events defined in the Event list. The Event Engine is a very powerful feature, allowing the inclusion of scripted historical detail ranging from simple news strings to complex probability-controlled branching.

The Structure of an Event

An Event is defined by the following elements: a Trigger, an Effect, a Location, a Value or Radius, a Chance of Occurrence, a Turn Range, a News String, and a Status. Except for one exception, explained below, all events can only be activated one time.

Event Triggers

An Event is set into motion by a trigger. Allowed triggers:

  • Force 1 or 2 occupies a location: Occupation of any location within the given radius will serve as a trigger. This trigger can only be used with certain effects.
  • Timer: The Event activates on a specified Turn.
  • Player 1 or 2 winning (victory differential): The Event is activated if the Victory Differential reaches the specified Value. This trigger can only be used with certain effects.
  • Other Event activated: The Event is activated after another specified Event is activated.
  • Other Event cancelled: The Event is activated after another specified Event is cancelled. Note that this only applies to cancellation due to Probability check failure (see below). Cancellation by the Cancel Event effect will not cause this to trigger.
  • Player 1 or 2 uses Chemical Weapons: ... anywhere on the Map.
  • Player 1 or 2 uses Nuclear Weapons: ... anywhere on the Map.
  • Force 1 Attacks and Force 2 Attacks: These triggers are like the “Force 1 Occupies” and “Force 2 Occupies” triggers. The Event is triggered if there is an Attack by the indicated Force within the Event Check Radius, or if any terrain becomes controlled by the Force within the radius. This means that the “Attack” trigger includes the “Occupied” trigger in addition to Attack detection. This trigger can only be used with certain effects.
  • Variable value: Event triggers when the Event Engine variable reaches a specific value. This trigger can only be used with certain effects.
  • Unit destroyed: Event triggers when the specified unit has been destroyed or disbanded (not withdrawn). If the unit has been subdivided, the event triggers upon destruction of all subunits of the unit. This trigger can only be used with certain effects.

Each Event has a chance to have an effect. In most cases, this will be 100%. If an effect does not occur because it fails this check, it is considered “cancelled”. If the Event passes the check, it is considered “activated”. This can in turn cause other Events to be activated or cancelled. Each Event has a Turn Range. In most cases, this will be one Turn.

If a larger Range is specified, the actual occurrence of the Event can activate (with equal chance) in any Turn from the Turn of triggering to that Turn plus the Turn Range. The check for activation of an Event with less than 100% chance to occur only happens once, regardless of the Turn range. The Activation Check is made first, and the actual Turn of Occurrence is calculated after it is determined that the Event is to occur.

Example: An Event scheduled to be triggered on Turn 5, with a Turn Range of 4 and a chance of activation of 75%. There is a 75% chance (one-time check) that the Event will occur. If it does occur, it will be activated on Turn 5, 6, 7, or 8.

Event Effects

When an Event is set into motion, it has an effect. Allowed effects are:

  • Force 1 or 2 Increase Victory Level: The specified value (see below) is added to the Victory Level for the indicated Force.
  • Force 1 or 2 Experiences Refugee Effects: The indicated Force suffers Refugee Effects within a radius (see below) of the specified location. The activation or cancellation of another Event, typically an Occupation Event, should be the trigger this for type of Event. The effect is one additional movement point when moving via a road. The effect lasts one turn.
  • Storms: Inclement weather occurs. This affects Air units, Land unit Movement, and some terrain types.
  • Warm Front: The least extreme Weather Zone (see 17.6., The Environment Editor) warms by one Level. Storms may occur, depending upon the global Precipitation likelihood. On subsequent Turns, the warming trend will affect more extreme Weather Zones. If a Map is too small to be Zonal, or Zone Polarity is equatorial, the entire Map will be affected as a one-time Event.
  • Cool Front: The most extreme Weather Zone (see The Environment Editor) cools by one Level. Storms may occur, depending upon the Global Precipitation likelihood. On subsequent Turns, the cooling trend will affect less extreme Weather Zones. If a Map is too small to be Zonal, or Zone Polarity is equatorial, the entire Map will be affected as a one-time Event.
  • Force 1 or 2 Wins Instantly: Unless another Event overrides this one, the indicated Force wins at the end of the Turn.
  • End Scenario with Normal Victory Tally: Unless another Event overrides this one, the Scenario ends with a normal Victory Tally.
  • News Only: Other than placing a news string in the News display, this Event has no direct effect. Other events may use this one as a trigger.
  • Withdraw a Unit: The indicated unit will be withdrawn beginning with the Event activation.
  • Force 1 or 2 Is Granted Chemical Release: Subsequent Attacks by the Force’s Artillery and Aircraft equipment are enhanced by chemicals.
  • Force 1 or 2 Is Granted Nuclear Weapons Release: The Force may attempt a given number of Nuclear Attacks per Turn with his long-range Air units.
  • Nuclear Attack: A nuclear attack is performed on the specified hex at the specified strength.
  • Force 1 or 2 Replacement Rates Are Multiplied: ... by a given percentage (1% to 999%).
  • Force 1 or 2 Force Supply Stockpile Level Is Increased: ... by a given percentage.
  • Force 1 or 2 Force Supply Stockpile Level Is Decreased: ... by a given percentage.
  • Activate Event: Use this to activate another Event. This is most commonly used to use one complex Event to trigger another. This will activate the target event even if it has already been activated. No Enable Event effect is necessary to re-enable the event.
  • Cancel Event: Use this to cancel another Event. This will not cause Event Canceled triggers to fire.
  • Enable Event: All other Events can only be activated once. You can use this effect to set a previously activated or triggered Event to be eligible for another occurrence.
  • Force 1 or 2 Theater Reconnaissance Capability: ... is increased by a positive value or decreased by a negative value. Minimum value is zero.
  • Force 1 or 2 Guerrilla Capability: ... The Value set is the percentage chance for each location behind friendly lines to spontaneously switch to enemy control.
  • Force 1 or 2 Air Transport Capacity: ... is set to a certain Level.
  • Force 1 or 2 Sealift Capacity: ... is set to a certain Level.
  • Force 1 or 2 Rail Transport Capacity: ... is set to a certain Level.
  • Withdraw an Army: All units with the EXACT SAME icon color scheme (foreground and background) as a selected unit will be withdrawn from the Theater. This includes Reinforcements not yet on the Map. Therefore, this event may have nothing to do with an Army, but will have everything to do with unit colors.
  • Force 1 or Force 2 Shock Level: This is typically used to model surprise. Shock levels can range from 1 to 200 but should in most cases be limited to the 50-150 range. The default is 100. Unit strengths are multiplied by the Shock Level (as a percentage). Movement costs for moving near enemy forces may be decreased if the moving Force has a Shock Level greater than the non-moving Force, and costs may be increased if the moving Force has a Shock Level less than the nonmoving Force. Time expended in combat may be reduced if the Attacker has a Shock Level above 100 and may be increased if the Attacker has a handicap level below 100. At levels below 100, Formations may arbitrarily reorganize (becoming unavailable for your orders). At Shock Levels below 70%, Air units will not defend their Airbases if attacked. Force Supply Stockpile Levels are affected by Shock Levels.
  • Force 1 or Force 2 Rail Repair Capacity: This is the greatest number of Rail locations that will automatically be repaired by the Force in any given Turn. This ability is in addition to any Railroad Repair Engineering units.
  • Force 1 or Force 2 Rail Destruction Chance: This is the chance that units of the Force will destroy enemy Rail lines when advancing into enemy-controlled territory. The default is 100% (as hard coded in earlier versions of the game).
  • Force 1 Air Shock Level and Force 2 Air Shock Level: As with the Force Shock Level, this is used to model surprise or sudden drops of morale for Air units. It is a direct percentage multiplier to Air unit Strengths. If the Shock Level is less than 70%, Air units will not rise to defend their air bases (interception) when under attack. The default is 100%. The effect is permanent, so you need to remember to restore to 100% when you want the Surprise Effect to expire. This also affects Unit Quality Checks, so be careful with it. Air units are no longer directly affected by the (non-air) Force Shock Level.
  • Supply Radius 1 and Supply Radius 2 are used to set the Road Supply Radius of Force 1 or Force 2: This is the distance to which Roads extend the fully supplied net from Supply Sources or Railroads leading to Supply Sources. The default is 4 hexes. Any value from 0 (Full Supply, only available along Rail lines and at Supply Sources) to 100 (Full Supply, can run from Supply Points along Rail lines and up to 10 hexes along Roads) can be set.
  • Force 1 or 2 ZOC Cost: Adjusts the scalar for the cost of moving from one enemy ZOC to another.
  • Force 1 or 2 Movement Bias: Adjusts the Force Movement Bias parameter.
  • Cease Fire and Open Fire: When a Cease Fire is in effect, units may not enter enemy territory or Attack enemy units, there is no Interdiction or Air Superiority combat, and Air units will not intercept enemy units using Air movement. Once called, a Cease Fire is permanent. To cancel a Cease Fire, issue an Open Fire Event effect.
  • Supply Point 1: Place or remove a Force 1 Supply Point. This also sets the Variable Supply level. A level of 0 removes the point. Up to 399 Supply Points can be placed per side.
  • Supply Point 2: Place or remove a Force 2 Supply Point. This also sets the Variable Supply level. A level of 0 removes the point. Up to 399 Supply Points can be placed per side.
  • Form’n Orders: Set Formation orders and emphasis. Only orders and emphasis can be modified. Objective tracks are unaffected.
  • Remove Zone 1: Remove Exclusion Zone 1.
  • Remove Zone 2: Remove Exclusion Zone 2.
  • Strategic Bias 1: Set P.O. Force 1 Strategic Bias.
  • Strategic Bias 2: Set P.O. Force 2 Strategic Bias.
  • Force 1 PO Activate: If Force 1 is PO Controlled, the specified event is activated. Note: If control is ever transferred to Human Control – including starting the scenario under Human Control – all such events are canceled. Resuming PO Control will not revive them.
  • Force 2 PO Activate: If Force 2 is PO Controlled, the specified event is activated. Note: If control is ever transferred to Human Control – including starting the scenario under Human Control – all such events are canceled. Resuming PO Control will not revive them.
  • Set ownership 1: Set ownership of a location to Force 1. No effect if location is occupied.
  • Set ownership 2: Set ownership of a location to Force 2. No effect if location is occupied.
  • Variable +: Adds a value to the Event Engine variable.
  • Variable –: Subtracts a value from the Event Engine variable.
  • Theater Option 1: Places a Theater option in the Force 1 Strategic Option window.
  • Theater Option 2: Places a Theater option in the Force 2 Strategic Option window.
  • Force 1 Track: Switch programmed opponent Objective tracks for Force 1.
  • Force 2 Track: Switch programmed opponent Objective tracks for Force 2.
  • Disband unit: Like Withdraw Unit but disbands the unit with its equipment entering the Replacement Pool. The unit need not be on the map to be Disbanded. This can be used to dump an equipment bonus into the Replacement Pool. Units disbanded by this method (as opposed to disbanded by the player in-game) are permanently removed from the Force’s OOB and never rebuild.
  • An Event Can Have a Value: Depending upon context, the value can be a trigger (the Victory Differential necessary to trigger a player-winning triggered Event) or an Effect Value (the Victory Award for an increase Victory Level effect Event).
  • An Event Can Have a Radius: Depending upon context, the Radius can control either the trigger (as in the case of an occupation triggered Event) or the Effect (as in the case of a Refugee Effect Event). Radius limit is now 99.
  • Withdraw Unit/Army and Disband Unit Events: ... require a unit specification.
  • Formation Orders Events: … require a Force number (1 or 2) and then a formation specification.

Event Engine Variable

The Event Engine variable is used to track some value. You can add to it or subtract from it by Event Effects (see below). The value can’t go lower than 0, so if you have any doubt about the Level the variable may have and you want to be sure to set it to zero, just subtract some large value from the variable.

For an example of many valid Event types used in a Scenario, use the “Dump” feature in the Korea 50-51 Scenario and examine the file it creates for an example of a functional Event List.

Theater Options

You can use Theater Option Effects to give players control over specific Events. The News string for the option will show up in the Theater Option window next to the Option button, not in the Recent News window. When a player selects an option, it is converted into a Timed Event (timer trigger) for activation in the current Turn. The option is then removed from the player’s option list. If you wish to remove an option, place a second option with the same News string and set an “Event to Activate” of 9999 or 10000.

The limit is 64 Theater Options listed at any given time. Options that may be added after that limit is reached will never show up in the list and will have no effect. Of course, a scenario can have more than that overall, but would have to ensure that any excess is used or removed before any more are activated.

Using the Event Editor to Create an Event List

The Event Editor shows three events at a time, in separate panes. Below the Event panes is a Control Bar with Event List scroll buttons, sorting buttons, and an Exit Event Editor button.

Event Editor Control Buttons

  • Scroll Buttons: Use this to scroll through the Event list.
  • Sort Buttons: Use this to sort events by Turn, Trigger, or Effect.
  • Exit Button: Use this to exit the Event Editor.

Event Panes

Each Event pane has up to nine buttons, as well as a News string entry field immediately below the buttons. Click within the News string entry field to change the string to be displayed in the Recent News report if the Event is activated. You do not have to specify a News string, and in some cases, you will want to leave the News string blank. Note that if you precede the News string with “Debug” it will not show in the Recent News when the event is triggered. This, therefore, allows the News string to serve as an Editor comment to remind the designer what the event is about when doing scenario edits at some future date. Many events do not use all nine buttons, and buttons will only appear as needed.

  • Different buttons can have different meanings in different Event types. Watch the context prompt in the Event Editor Information panel for further explanation. From left to right, top to bottom, the buttons are:
  • Trigger: Sets the trigger type. Left clicking increments to the next trigger. Right-clicking results in a popup menu from which you can select the trigger. It is usually more efficient to use the popup menu to select the trigger type.
  • Effect: Selects the effect type. Left clicking increments to the next effect. Right-clicking results in a popup menu from which you can select the effect type. It is usually more efficient to use the popup menu to select the Event type.
  • Triggering Event: Allows you to choose the Event to use for a trigger for the current Event. This is only used if you are setting up an Event triggered by another Event.
  • Turn or Delay: Sets the Turn of occurrence
  • Turn Range: Sets the range of Turns over which an Event may occur.
  • Chance of Occurrence: Sets the chance that the Event will occur if the trigger condition is met.
  • Location x: Sets the x map coordinate of the affected or checked location.
  • Location y: Sets the y map coordinate of the affected or checked location.
  • Value, Radius, Affected Event, or Unit Name: Selects the item indicated by the context prompt in the Information panel. To the right of the Event Pane are two or three buttons:
  • Copy Button: Copies the associated event pane to the Paste Buffer. After this is done, a third button is added: The Insert Button.
  • Delete Button: Deletes the associated event pane.
  • Insert Button: Inserts the contents of the Paste Buffer above the associated event pane. This button is only shown if the Copy operation has been performed.

Events are only copied and inserted by the Copy and Insert buttons. There is another advantage: Once copied, the paste buffer’s contents can be inserted over and over as often as desired.

The Control Bar has five buttons

  • Insert Button: Inserts the contents of the Paste Buffer above the current event pane.
  • Sort by Trigger Button: Sorts the events by trigger value.
  • Sort by Effect Button: Sorts the events by effect value.
  • Sort by ID Button: Sorts the events by ID value.
  • Exit Button: Exits the Event Editor.

Last, there is a “Go to event #” Input Box. Entering a number in the box will go to that event in the event list.

Finally, note that there is now a scrollbar, allowing scrolling to the desired event area.

The 'New Scenario' Event Template

When you first open the Event Editor for a new Scenario, you will find several standard “blank” Events ready to be filled in. The first of these is a Turn 1 News Event. You can fill in the News string to create the first News item you want to appear in the Recent News report when the Scenario begins. Below this are blank Turn 1 Events for setting the Air, Sea, and Rail Transport and Global Reconnaissance levels for each Force. In most cases, you will want to leave the Sea and Air Transport levels at 0, but there should almost always be some Rail Transport or Global Reconnaissance Level for each Force.

To calculate the amount of Transport needed, determine how many units you wish to be able to move. In a truly historical Scenario, this will be based on the actual maximum levels used by each Force in the original campaign. Add up the transport requirements available in the Deployment Editor Unit Reports.

For example, if your research indicates that a Force apparently had the ability to ship three regiments per Turn by Rail, and the Transport requirement of three typical regiments adds up to 150, set the Force Rail Transport Capacity to 150. Do the same for Air and Sea transport capacities if you want to be able to move units by Air or Sea in your Scenario.

Default Events

When a named Urban location is taken or successfully defended, the program automatically places a News item in the Recent News report. You do not need to set up separate Events solely to report these occurrences. But note that if the named location is not Urban (or Dense Urban) no such automatic news items are generated for it.

Replacement Editor

You set the Rate of Replacement for each type of equipment in the inventory of each Force using the Replacement Editor. This window is very similar to the Inventory and Replacements Report available in the game. It lists the complete equipment inventory for a given Force, indicated by the National Flag near the Control Panel.

The Control Bar at the bottom of the dialog has two buttons: Exit to leave the Replacement Editor, and Switch Sides is used to toggle from one Force inventory to the other. There is also a scrollbar.Each item in the inventory has several buttons, as follows:

Information Button: Click for equipment information.

Name: This is the name of the equipment type.

On Hand Button: This is the quantity of Replacement equipment currently stockpiled and available for distribution to understrength units.

Replacement Rate Button: This is the rate at which the equipment is added to the “On Hand” stockpile of Replacements. In most cases, this should be woefully short of requirements.

Begin Button: This is the first Turn in which the equipment will be added to the stockpile.

End Button: This is the last Turn in which the equipment will be added to the stockpile.

Assigned Equipment Tally: This is the total quantity of equipment assigned to all units defined in the Force’s Order of Battle. The total includes units that may, depending upon Scenario design, never actually enter the Map.


Note that the list is sortable via the header items, just like the in-game Inventory Report.

Default Replacements

If you choose, you can set 1% or 2% Replacements from the Edit / Set Replacements menu item. If you do this, 1% or 2% of your total starting Force inventory of each item will be replaced each Turn.

Equipment Transitions

You can model equipment transitions by using the Begin and End buttons to set the arrival time frames for different types of equipment. For example, in the Korea 50-51 Scenario, the U.N. player initially receives Shermans, then Pershings, and finally Pattons. If you authorize different types of equipment in your units while assigning different starting Levels, you will find that the unit slowly transitions from one type of equipment to another as the types of Replacements available change over time. Since it is possible to authorize equipment without assigning it, a unit could conceivably go from being equipped solely with one type of equipment at the beginning of a Scenario, to being equipped solely with another type of equipment by the end of the Scenario. Sudden transitions can be achieved by withdrawing a unit and entering another unit of the same name, but different equipment as a Replacement later.

Be aware that unit reconstitution is only triggered by having enough replacement equipment for the top item [known as the 'first line equipment'] in the unit’s TO&E. Therefore, units designed to be 'transitioned' as explained above may not reconstitute well.

Unit Replacement Priorities

You can use the Specific Unit Replacement Priorities window to set unit Replacement priorities and eligibility for Reconstitution. The unit list can be scrolled up and down, and the Switch Sides button switches from one Force to the other. All units are displayed, along with their Formation assignments, Replacement Priority, and Reconstitution Eligibility. Select a Replacement Priority button to change the associated unit’s Replacement Priority. Select a Reconstitution button to toggle the unit’s eligibility for Reconstitution.Replacement priorities affect the likelihood and amounts of Replacements for units if there isn’t enough replacement equipment to fill all requests.

Replacement Priority

Priority Chance
Very High 100%
High 80%
Normal 60%
Low 40%
Very Low 20%
None 0%

Units with a Replacement Priority of none will never receive Replacements during a Scenario.

Units ineligible for Reconstitution will not be Reconstituted if destroyed during a Scenario.If you use this window to set unit Replacement Priorities or eligibility for Reconstitution, you should probably mention the fact in your Scenario Briefing, otherwise players may be confused when their units do not receive Replacements or are not Reconstituted.

Reconstitution? Fixed x, y

Reconstitution? There are two obvious options: No and Yes. If set to No the unit will not reconstitute. If set to Yes, it will reconstitute. It will do so at the Reentry Point if that has been set. If it hasn’t, it will reconstitute.

However, a force may consist of units needing to reconstitute in very different locations. For example, a WW II Allied force may consist of British, US, French, and Soviet units. You don’t want your Soviets to reconstitute in Britain or your British to reconstitute in Russia. But, with only one Re-entry Point all units will reconstitute in the same place – so some must reconstitute in the wrong place. Omitting the Reconstitution Point will cede control of where to reconstitute to the computer – which may put them anywhere, randomly.Therefore, this column has a third choice:

Fixed x, y. If that is opted for the unit, the unit will reconstitute in the x, y location. That location is set by the first objective of Track One of the unit’s formation. So, by controlling where that objective is set, you can control exactly where the units of each formation reconstitute. There can be as many reentry points in the game as there are formations.

Deployment Editor

The Deployment Editor is used to deploy Forces on the map; set Supply Points, Reinforcement Entry Sites, and plot Programmed Opponent Orders and Objectives. The main displays in the Deployment Editor are very similar to those used in the game.Forces for both sides must be validly defined before the Deployment Editor can be entered. That means that at least one unit must be created and assigned to a formation for each side.

The Legacy Unit Panel

This area is visible only in the Editor’s Deployment Editor and in the Legacy Control Panel. Left clicking on the Unit Panel centers the screen on the unit. Right clicking on the Unit Panel brings up the Unit Report window for the top unit shown in the panel.The Unit Panel shows the unit’s Owning Force, Parent Formation, Unit Name, and Deployment or Mission. A graphic of the most significant equipment type assigned to the unit is superimposed on a background showing the terrain in the unit’s location.Various icons and numbers along the left side of the Unit Panel indicate the general state of the unit and the presence of other units also present in its location. From top to bottom, at left:

  • The Health Icon shows a color from green (very good Unit Supply, Readiness, and Equipment levels) to red (very poor Supply, Readiness, and Equipment levels).
  • Numbers to the right of the Attack Strength icon indicate the unit’s Attack Strength. If the unit can fire long distances at enemy units, the range is shown next to the Attack Number, otherwise the unit’s Anti-Personnel and Anti-Armor Strengths are shown.
  • A number next to the Defense Strength icon indicates the unit’s Defense Strength.
  • Finally, two numbers next to the Movement Allowance icon indicates the unit’s Current and Original Movement Allowances. For example, “10 of 20” would mean the unit’s Current Movement Allowance is 10 and the Original Movement Allowance is 20.
    A “stack” of unit icons appears in the middle of the Unit Panel. If you move your mouse cursor slowly along the edge of the stack in the Unit Panel, you can examine each unit grouped in the same location. Left click on any one of the stacked unit icons to make the indicated unit the new “current unit” (thus bringing it to the top of the stack).

Deployment Editor Control Panel

The eight buttons in the control panel are, from left to right/top to bottom, as follows:

  • Previous Unit: Select the previous unit.
  • Next Unit: Select the next unit.
  • Unit Icon Display: Changes the unit icon display preferences. This selects between showing unit strengths or movement allowances.
  • Switch Sides: Switch from one Force to the other.
  • Previous Formation: Select the previous Formation and its first unit.
  • Next Formation: Select the next Formation and its first unit.
  • Current Formation Info: Display a full Report on the current Formation.
  • Undo: Undo the previous action.
    A ninth button is situated under these eight:

Deployment Mode Select: The Deployment mode select is used to specify the action to be performed if you select a location in the Map panel. The different modes available are Place Unit, Remove Unit, Place Supply, Place Objective, Objective Value, Reentry Point, and Toggle Ownership. Left clicking on the button moves through the list forward. Right clicking on it moves through the list backwards.

The Deployment Modes

You place units, Supply Points, etc. by right clicking in the Map panel. The effects of a right click depend on the Deployment mode. The Deployment mode is selected by clicking on the Deployment Mode button, or by left clicking on an empty Map location. If you left click on a Map location containing a unit, that unit will become the current unit.

  • Place Unit: The current unit, if off map, will be placed in the selected location. If you right-click on the current unit (i.e., the one with the brass-colored highlight around it), a popup menu will give you a choice of actions.
  • Remove Unit: The top unit (and possibly others) in the selected location will be removed from the Map.
  • Place Supply: If no Supply Point is in the location, one will be placed. If a Supply Point is already present, it will be removed. There will be a prompt for the Variable Value for the point. If set to zero, the point is removed. There is a limit of 399 Supply Points per side.
  • Place Objective: If no current Formation Objective is in the location, one will be placed. If there is already a current Formation Objective in the location, it will be removed.
  • Objective Value: You can set the value for any final Objective in the location.
  • Reentry Point: You can set a reentry point for Reconstituted Land units. Each side may have one Reentry Point defined. It is not necessary for a Reentry Point to be set for each Force, but if it is set all Reconstituted Land units belonging to the Force will attempt to enter at or near the Reentry Point if it is friendly-controlled.
  • Toggle Ownership: You can change the ownership of an unoccupied location.

The Order Of Battle (OOB) Report

This report is almost the same as the one used in the game. But note that it has buttons to change the Force Name, Force Flag, Force Proficiency, and Force Supply Stockpile. Those operations are also available when using the Force Editor. They appear on the OOB Report as part of an effort to replace the Force Editor by incorporating its functions onto the OOB, Formation, and Unit Reports. That effort was not fully completed before the Release of TOAW IV. It is still planned to be completed in a future update.

Unit Report

This report has a lot of differences with the one in the game. It has a lot of similarities to the Force Editor, in fact. You can set the Unit Name, Size, Color scheme, Icon, Secondary Icon, Add/Remove Equipment, change the amounts of Assigned/ Authorized Equipment, and set the Unit Supply, Readiness, and Proficiency. You also change the Untried/Veteran status here. In order to use custom Unit Colors, see Re-coloring the TOAW IV Counters

Note that this report has the Available Systems pane from the Force Editor. It works a little differently than the Force Editor’s, however. The two buttons at the top are the “collapse all” and “expand all” buttons. You can, alternately, expand or collapse a single category by clicking on its category. Once expanded, the scrollbar allows quick access to the equipment.The main Force Editor feature that is missing from these three reports is the ability to create units and formations from scratch or to move units within the OOB. For that you still must go to the Original Force Editor. It’s also not as easy to move between the three reports as it is between the three states in the Force Editor. And these reports are not available if the forces are still not fully defined. Finally, the Edit pulldown options when the Force Editor is active are not available with these reports. These are the issues that are planned to be addressed in a future update.

The Formation Report

This window is almost identical to the one used in the game. The primary difference is the presence of Formation Orders and Emphasis buttons, used to define the behavior of the Formation when it is under computer control. You will have to use these buttons to set the Orders and Loss Tolerance for your Formations.But note that it has buttons to change the Formation Name, Formation Proficiency, and Formation Supply Distribution Efficiency. Again, this is part of the Force Editor re-design, yet to be completed.

Formation Orders

Formation orders are primarily designed for use in fine-tuning the programmed opponent. Except for the Static and Delay orders, they have no effect on a human player.

  • Defend: The Formation will defend its Objectives, with higher priority given to higher-numbered Objectives. If all Objectives are under friendly control, most units will remain in place. If all Objectives are under friendly control, but some are threatened, some units will migrate in a high efficiency, safe, low-speed mode toward the most threatened Objective. Movement will generally be along the line of intermediate Objectives, if any. If any Objective becomes enemy-controlled, the Formation orders automatically switch to Attack orders and follows Attack Order logic. If allowed, units belonging to the Formation will attempt to dig in. Formations with Defend orders will remain more concentrated than Formations with Screen orders.
  • Attack: The Formation will advance toward the highest-numbered enemy controlled Objective. Once all Formation Objectives are friendly-controlled, the Formation switches to Defend orders and follows Defend Order logic. Formations with Attack Orders will remain more concentrated than Formations with Secure orders.
  • Secure: This is like an Attack Order. The only difference is that a Formation with a Secure Order switches over to a Screen Order (rather than Defend) when all Formation objectives are under friendly control.
  • Screen: Units belonging to a Formation with a Screen Order will divide, split up, and attempt to bring all nearby territory under friendly control. They will fall back to the highest numbered Objective if strongly approached by the enemy. If any Formation objective becomes enemy-controlled, the Formation switches to a Secure order.
  • Static: Units belonging to the Formation are not available for Orders until the Formation is activated. Activation occurs on a specific Turn (set in the Editor) or when the enemy Attacks or moves adjacent to any unit of the Formation. When activated, the Formation assumes a Defend order.
  • Wait: Affects the programmed opponent as a Delay order. There is no effect on a human player.
  • Hold: Affects the programmed opponent as a Static order. There is no effect on a human player.
  • Delay: Units belonging to the Formation are not available for Orders until the Formation is activated. Activation occurs on a specific Turn (set in the Editor) or when the enemy Attacks or moves adjacent to any unit of the Formation. When activated, the Formation assumes an Attack order.
  • Independent: Units belonging to the Formation will attempt to do what they do best in support of other Formations along the axis running from lowest-numbered Objective to highest-numbered Objective. This is a “catch all” order, intended primarily for very high-level Formations.
  • Manual: The “Manual” Formation order is identical to the “Hold” Formation Order except for one thing – the Formation can only be activated by either an Event or Turn. Enemy actions will not activate the Formation. This order is intended for Formations in Static or Fortified positions, where the Scenario designer wishes to force the Formation to remain in place, regardless of enemy action. This order has no effect on a human player. Note that this means that such formations are not moved by the PO Assist feature – thus the name.
  • Advance: This order has no effect on a human player. The PO effect is like the Attack Order, except that the Formation will ignore threats to its rear areas. The Formation will only react to rear area threats if all Formation Objectives become enemy-controlled.
  • Garrison: This order affects both human and computer players. Garrison orders are very similar to Reserve orders, except that units are individually activated if pushed out of their original positions. The Order is converted to a Defend Order when the game is first loaded, and all units of the Formation assume a Garrison status. Units in Garrison are treated much like units in Reserve Formations. Individual units lose their Garrison status when they are retreated or eliminated. Once a unit loses its Garrison status, it may be used normally. Garrison units are shown with a yellow band across the bottom of their 2D unit icon.

Formation Loss Tolerance

Formation Loss Tolerances have much the same effect as Unit Loss Tolerances have in the game. Formations ordered minimize losses will behave cautiously under programmed opponent control. Formations ordered to ignore losses will behave very aggressively under programmed opponent control.

Formation Objectives

Each Formation may have up to ninety-nine Objectives. Formations will attempt to advance up the line of Objectives from the lowest numbered Objective to the highest numbered Objective when on the offensive. They will fall back in the opposite direction when defending. At least one Objective must be set for the Formation for units to be assigned as reinforcements. As a Formation is assigned Objectives, the Microview panel displays the numbered Objective for that Formation.In addition to the numbered tracks, objective tracks can now be displayed graphically on the map panel. In Deployment Mode, the View pull down has two options: Formation Path (/) – displays the current formation’s path and Formation Paths (?) – displays all formations’ paths. Red arrowed lines indicate the currently selected unit’s first objective, while blue arrowed lines show the path from lowest to highest numbered objectives for the formation.

Deployment for Airborne Ops

The programmed opponent is much more likely to use Airborne units in Airborne Attacks if you deploy the units in locations with airbases. Remember to give the Force enough Air Transport Capacity to transport all the units you want involved.

Deployment for Amphibious Ops

The programmed opponent is much more likely to use units for Amphibious operations if you deploy the units in a friendly Anchorage, with the lowest-numbered Objective reachable only by Sea Transport. Remember to give the Force enough Sea Transport Capacity to transport all the units you want involved in any invasions. It is also suggested to make sure that the starting point is in supply, as units that are not in supply tend not to make Amphibious Assaults.

How to Deploy Your Forces

Undeployed units may be deployed by placing them on the map, or by assigning them as Reinforcements.

You will only be able to deploy units in allowed locations. It is probably best to set up territorial ownership before deploying your units. The quickest way to do this is to temporarily deploy a few units from each force within the territory to be controlled by the force at the beginning of the Scenario.

Select the Place Unit deployment mode. Move the mouse cursor into the map view and right click to deploy a unit. Place a few more units in the same way to outline the territory owned by that Force.

Now, click on the Switch Sides button and deploy a few units from the second Force.Once the rough outlines of the territories are outlined, select the Edit Automatic Ownership menu item to calculate terrain ownership over the entire Map. It is best to place at least half a dozen units per side since the Ownership Calculation takes more time if units are sparsely placed.

Select the Edit Remove All Units menu item to pick up the temporarily deployed units. Select View Flags: Visible or View Flags: Borders so you can see the boundaries between the Forces.

To fine tune the territorial ownership, select the Toggle Ownership deployment mode and click on the locations you wish to change from ownership by one Force to the other.

Once you have your borders defined, it is time to start placing your Forces on the map. Select the Place Unit deployment mode. Move the mouse cursor back into the map view and begin placing units by right-clicking on map locations. As you place units, the Editor will keep cycling to the next undeployed unit. Once you have placed all the units you wish on the map, the remainder can be set as Reinforcements.

You can divide units in the Deployment Editor. Be cautious about this. Once units are divided, no units can be modified in the Force Editor. Try to avoid dividing units in the Deployment Editor until after you are certain that there will be no more significant changes to your Order of Battle.

Setting Reinforcements

In order to set Reinforcements, you will have to assign at least one Objective for the units’ parent Formation. Select the Place Objective deployment mode and right-click within the Map Panel. The selected location will become the default entry point for all Reinforcements assigned to the Formation. Click on the Current Formation button in the Control Panel to bring up the Formation Report. Notice that all undeployed units assigned to the Formation are scheduled to appear on the first Turn at the location selected for the first Formation objective. You can change the entry Turn or entry (appearance) location by clicking on the corresponding buttons next to the unit ‘s name. You can also change the entry hex by temporarily placing the unit on the map in the desired entry location and then removing it. This tends to be safer than entering an x, y, location, since you can see exactly where the unit will enter.

The location buttons are also available for units that are already on the map. They can be moved via editing the button values without needing to remove them from the map first.

Placing Supply Sources

Once all Reinforcements are set, you need to place Supply Sources. Select the Place Supply deployment mode. Click within the Map view to place Supply Points for the current Force. Switch sides to place the other Force’s Supply Points. Upon placement (or upon clicking on an existing Supply Point), the program will prompt for the Supply Point’s Variable Value. To remove a placed Supply Point, change the Variable Value to zero.  The Supply Point Limit is 399.

Set Formation Orders

Set the Formation Orders and Orders Emphasis for each Formation using the buttons at the bottom of the Formation report.

Place Formation Objectives

Select the Place Objective deployment mode. Set Objectives for the current Formation by right clicking within the Map Panel. If you wish to remove an Objective, right-click again. Objectives for the current Formation are shown as numbers in the Map and Microview Panels. If a location has an Objective for any Formation of either Force, it is shown as a national flag indicating the current owner of the location. Note that only objectives that are given a positive Victory Point value will be visible when you play the game.

If you click on an existing objective while placing objectives in the deployment editor you are offered three choices, as follows:

  • Remove Objective: Removes the Objective from the map.
  • Insert Objective: Renumbers Objectives to allow placement of a new Objective within an existing Objective path.
  • Sequence Objectives: Ensures that there are no missing objectives in the Formation’s Objective Sequence. For example, 1-2-3-5-6-7 will be automatically corrected to 1-2-3-4-5-6.

Set the Microview Icon Colors and 3D Icon Tints

One of the last things you need to do when designing a Scenario is to decide which sides should be represented by which colors in the Microview and in the 3D Map displays. Use the Edit Set Microview Icons menu item to set Microview Icon colors, and the Edit Set 3D Icon Tint menu item to set 3D icon colors.

Create Scenario and Victory Briefings

The Scenario Briefing is displayed when the Scenario is selected in the Scenario select dialog as well as within the game from the Scenario briefing display. You have 16k of text space. You should try to include the following in your Scenario briefings:

Physical Description: Scale, Climate, Map Size.

History: Date, Location, General Context. Keep this short, or make sure that there is a concise introductory paragraph.

Basic Mission Guidelines for Players: Let them know what they need to try to do to win the game.

Formation Support Level Effects: Be sure to let players know if you have used the Formation support scope feature to impose restrictions on force cooperation.

Special Features / Events: You should point out strong Event features, such as the possibility of Chinese intervention in Vietnam. This really is a critical point. You will confuse the hell out of players with things like guerrilla and theater reconnaissance effects if you don’t mention them in the Scenario description.

The following is the suggested Briefing Format:

************************
SCENARIO NAME and scenario version [v0.0]

Scenario start and end dates

::Either or Both sides PO enabled :: [if true]

::PBEM capable :: [if true]     

COMPLEXITY: Beginner, Novice, Intermediate or Advanced

MAP SIZE: X x Y

UNIT COUNT: Player 1 = xxxx, PLayer 2 = xxxx

TIME to PLAY = x Hours

TURNS:

TURN LENGTH:

MAP SCALE:

UNIT SCALE:

**Scenario Briefing**        

TOAW-IV ver. x.x.x.x

MRPB:

AD:

Designer: Your name here plus any other credits

E-mail: Your contact information

************************
Victory Briefings

Consequences and Speculation – Players will see the text for one of three results at the end of a Scenario, depending upon the outcome [Win Side 1, Draw, or Win Side 2]. This text should give the player a sense of the consequences of the game result, including a reference to the historical result.The Briefing Editor

The included Briefing Editor is a simple Windows text editor. It can be used to create briefings, but if you really want to do a professional job (spell checking, etc.) you might wish to create your briefings in a full functioned word processor (e.g. Microsoft Word). Once you are satisfied with the briefing, cut it from your word processor and paste it into the Briefing Editor.

Designer Game Options Preferences

This is a new option that allows the designer to pre-set his preferences for the Advanced Game Options for his scenario. The first player will have the option to accept or override these preferences. If he overrides them, his opponent will receive an alert message to that effect.The dialog is invoked via the Edit pull-down. There is a menu item “Advanced Rules Preset” on that pull-down. Click on it. The dialog is launched. Note that there are 13 rows listing the 13 Advanced Rules Game Options. To the right of each are three columns of checkboxes. There is an ON column, and OFF column, and a DO NOT CARE column.Initially, all Game Options are set to “DO NOT CARE”. The designer can then set as many or as few options as he desires to the ON or OFF preferences. After saving the scenario file, those preferences are stored with that file. Now, whenever anyone starts the scenario, after the Turn 1 message is exited, he will be alerted to the preferences that the designer set, in the Game Options Preferences Override dialog.On this dialog, each Advanced Rule Game Option that the designer set a preference for is listed with that preference shown. To the right of each item is an Override checkbox. The first player then has the option to override as many or as few of those preferences as he desires, by toggling the appropriate checkbox. But he is warned that such overriding will be reported to his opponent. After the dialog is exited, the Advanced Rules Game Options are set as the preferences and overrides dictate.During his first turn, the opposing player receives an alert dialog that shows any overrides that the first player made, if any.

General Notes on Scenario Creation

Things to keep in mind when designing a Scenario.

Use the Scenario Dump Feature

Scenario Dumps are an invaluable aid in Scenario design. A tremendous amount of information is available in the Scenario Dump. Among other things, the Dump includes the results of the Scenario validation check as a list of Warnings and suggestions. In order to load into the game without Warnings, your Scenario must pass this Scenario Validation Check.

For further details, see TOAW Tutorial - Scenario Dump, Unit Colors & Names (for The Operational Art of War v3.4.1.9, but the basic principles are unchanged).

Talk to Other Scenario Designers

This Editor is only going to become more complex as the game develops. If you don’t understand something, or if you can’t figure out how to model some Event, check with other Scenario designers. There are several excellent websites that have links to resources (web sites and email addresses) for Scenario designers, including collections of users created Scenarios as they are developed.

Study Dumps of the Existing Scenarios

Load some of the standard Scenarios and use the Scenario Dump feature to create text dumps. Studying these dumps will give some idea of the level of situation detail possible in TOAW IV. If you decide to print a Scenario Dump out, you might wish to reformat it in a word processing program. It is not uncommon for Scenario Dumps to run over 150 printed pages with the usual printer defaults. Scenario Dumps are also a critical aid in developing your own Scenarios, particularly if you make heavy use of Reinforcements or the Event engine.

Event Engine

You can go nuts with this thing but be cautious. We opted for power over bulletproofing. If you are working on a short, straightforward Scenario, you may not need to worry about the Event List at all. Default News items will be generated when significant battles are fought or named cities are taken or ruined. On the other hand, if your Scenario is longer than a couple of months – particularly if weather is important – expect to get your frontal lobes dirty.

Regardless of whether you wish to be creative with the Event Engine, there are a few standard Events that should be set for most Scenarios. Be sure to set Theater Recon, theater Guerrilla, Rail Transport, Sea Transport, and Air Transport levels for each Force. Set this up as a simple timer trigger for Turn 1. Remember to modify the values with later Events if they should be changed.

Theater Recon abstractly represents your long range and “humint” resources. A value of 10% is probably enough for most cases, perhaps higher in smaller physical scales. Theater Guerrilla levels represent things like partisan activity. Set this level if you want locations behind friendly lines to have a chance to spontaneously revert to enemy control.

Make it Fit

Think about the games you have played. Do you remember any that didn’t work because the unit scale or density were wrong? We do. This is a subjective judgment, and there are special cases. But try to avoid huge, sparsely populated Maps.

You should also try to avoid Maps clogged with large groups of units unless you want to give players a case of virtual trench foot. Some situations are too large, and some are too small, to fit well with any game system. TOAW IV is designed to handle classic military campaigns; it won’t do well with things like island-hopping, although it can handle something like Operation Sealion or Operation Chromite.

Naval combat has been improved with TOAW IV. However, there are still many facets of naval warfare that have yet to be modeled (transporting/ interdicting supply by sea, for example). If you really need to handle Naval Campaigns (i.e. WWII in the Mediterranean or Pacific), resolve them using the Event Engine and a series of dependent Reinforcement or Withdrawal Events.

Maps

Keep in mind what features on your map may or may not have influenced the battle that you are simulating and keep it simple where you can. An over cluttered map with multiple terrain types in many hexes and roads and rail lines all over is difficult for the player to comprehend and navigate.

Unit Deployments and Air Unit Missions

When you get around to final polish on your Scenarios, be sure to give reasonable starting Missions for Air units. Remember that if Air units are “resting” they will not respond to enemy air action. (Actually, you can use this to model surprise to some extent, although the units will still rise to their own defense if their base is attacked.)

No player wants to cycle through 20 Air units putting all the fighters on Air Superiority and all the bombers on Interdiction at the start of every Scenario. Put Land units in defensive positions or Reserve deployments. Set appropriate Loss Tolerances for all units. If air units are deployed to remote “distant” hexes separated from the main theater via impassable terrain, be sure to provide supply points to those locations.

Forces

The Force you set as the first Force on Turn 1 is guaranteed to move first on Turn 1 only (except in PBEM and Hotseat games). All bets are off after that, with initiative set according to the relative Strengths and positions of the opposing forces. Initiative is strongly influenced by the average Movement Allowance of all friendly Land units on the map not assigned to Formations with a Reserve status.

Formations

General Organization

You have 32-unit slots in each Formation. Please DO NOT use them all. Open slots must exist for units to break down. If you fill up your Formation unit list the units of the Formation will not be able to break down. In most cases, limit the number of line combat units (things like infantry regiments) in a Formation to no more than 12; anymore and the programmed opponent code will not use all the units efficiently in some situations. You may want this effect in some situations. Overloaded Formations may tend to use Soviet style echelon attacks.

Support Levels

This is a critical game feature, so information available elsewhere in this manual bears repeating here. You can set a Formation Support Level to Internal Support, Army Support, Force Support, or Free Support. The degree of cooperation is based on the best possible Cooperation Level between two units.

Internal Support

Units belonging to Formations with Internal Support levels will only cooperate fully with other units of the same Formation. Limited cooperation is possible with units belonging to other Formations, if those units use the same 2D icon color scheme. No cooperation is possible with other units.

Army Support

In this context the term “Army” means units with identical 2D icon colors. Units belonging to Formations with Army Support levels will cooperate fully with other units of the same Formation, as well as those using an identical 2D icon color scheme and belonging to other Formations. Limited cooperation is possible with units of other Formations using the same 2D icon background color and a different foreground (symbol) color. No cooperation is possible with other units.

Force Support

In this context the term “Force” means units with similar 2D icon background colors. Units belonging to Formations with Army Support levels will cooperate fully with other units of the same Formation, as well as those using the same 2D icon background color and belonging to other Formations. Limited cooperation is possible all other units.

Free Support

Units belonging to Formations with Free Support cooperate fully with all friendly units. This should generally be used only for very high-level Formations.

The penalty for using Non-Cooperative or Limited Cooperative units varies. The strongest effect is in combat. Non-Cooperative units are more likely to pull out of Attacks early and increase the chance that combats will take longer to resolve. The same is true to a lesser extent for units with Limited Cooperation.

Formation Objectives

Intermediate Objectives

The programmed opponent will do a pretty good job of finding a path from a Formation’s current location to its Objectives. There may be times, however, when you wish to fine tune the likely path that a Formation will take from one point to another. This is particularly true if the terrain in your Scenario has a strong channelizing effect on movement. You may find that in this case many Formations will jam up at low Movement Cost choke points. If this happens, you might wish to set intermediate Objectives to guide some or all Formations through specific points. It can also be helpful to specify intermediate Objectives at places like bridges if the terrain is difficult. This may simplify the programmed opponent’s task in finding “good” paths.

Intermediate Objectives can also be used to set up reserve reaction situations. By setting an Objective to some otherwise unimportant location, you can trigger an Attack by the affected Formation when the enemy Force passes through the “tripwire” Objective. In some cases, this is a matter of timing. You can, for example, set up a likely meeting engagement by setting a zero-value tripwire Objective on a Road just before the Objective you wish to protect. Your Formation will react, advancing through the actual Objective on its way to the front as soon as the enemy hits the tripwire.

Values and Victory

It is only possible to assign Victory Point values to Objectives assigned to Formations. This should keep you from forgetting to assign someone to guard or seize an important Victory Point Objective. You should still be careful in assigning Objectives and Victory Values, though. The programmed opponent logic is strongly Formation-based. Within certain limits, the internal movement logic will ignore valued Objectives not specifically assigned to a Formation. Be sure to assign enough forces to secure valuable Objectives.

Victory in the game is based on the values you assign to your Objectives. Loss penalties are scaled to be equal to total Objective Values. Total loss of both Forces will result in loss penalties exactly equal to the value of all Objectives on the map.

Multiple Objective Tracks

You can set up as many as five different sets of Objectives for each Formation. Only the values assigned to Objectives in Track One have any Victory effect. If you use this feature be sure to set up multiple Objective tracks for all Formations, otherwise the programmed opponent may become confused if you select alternate Objective tracks. Use a Force Track Event to switch tracks during a Scenario.

This is a very advanced feature. It imposes significant additional testing requirements on your Scenario. Do not feel that you must use it. Most of the official Scenarios only use Track One objectives.

Units

Authorized and Assigned Equipment

In many cases, you should consider assigning your units less than their authorized equipment strengths, particularly if your Scenario is not set at the very beginning of a conflict. In some rare cases, units can begin with more than their authorized equipment level.

Untried vs. Veteran Status

You can set your units to Veteran status, fixing their Proficiency, by use of the Veteran / Untried toggle button in the Unit Report. This can have a strong effect on how your Scenario will play. The Proficiency of a Veteran unit is a known quantity. This is not true of Untried units (as displayed at the top of the Unit Report). An Untried unit’s actual Proficiency is determined when it first participates in combat and can vary by as much as 33% (relative) from the originally projected Proficiency.

Most units should be Veterans in mid-war Scenarios. Many units should be Untried in Scenarios beginning major campaigns. Newly raised units arriving as Reinforcements should generally be Untried (the default).

Supply Levels

It is common for one or both sides to have very large stockpiles of Supplies available for their units in the opening hours or days of a war. You should consider this if your Scenario is set at the beginning of a war. We do not recommend over-supplying forces in mid-conflict Scenarios. Be aware that an oversupplied unit’s Supply Level will immediately drop to 100% or less if it moves.

Deployment Status

If the situation modeled in your Scenario calls for units in defensive positions, be sure to remember to set the units to Defending, Entrenched, or Fortified deployment status. Remember to set a Local or Tactical Reserve order for any units that historically reacted to enemy movements. This could be critical for some Scenarios where the attacker will move before the defender gets a chance to set his unit deployments.

Headquarters Units

Depending upon the effect you are trying to achieve, Headquarters units can either be simple Formation focal points and holding units for assets typically attached to larger Formations, or they can be carefully modeled providers of command and supply for units in their Formation. Some armies have very informal decentralized Command and Supply systems. Others are arranged in rigid, formal hierarchies.

You can see this difference in the Middle East 1973 Scenario; the Israelis do not even have Headquarters units and the Arabs have very formal HQ units. This is an advantage for the Israelis, as they are not subject to the negative effects of damage to HQ units.

Command Groups

Command Groups provide command functions for a Formation. Headquarters units do not need to have command groups authorized, but if they do, their Formations are likely to be forced to reorganize if all assigned command groups in the Headquarters are eliminated. In game terms, use of command groups allows a Scenario designer to build a vulnerability into a Force’s Formations. We recommend taking advantage of this feature, so go ahead and assign two command groups (this will probably work better than one unless you really want your command structure to be fragile) to each Headquarters unit.

Support Squads

Support Squads provide supply distribution functions for a Formation. Headquarters units do not need to have Support Squads authorized, but if they do, units of the associated Formation will suffer reduced resupply rates should some or all authorized Support Squads be eliminated. In game terms, use of Support Squads allows a Scenario designer to build vulnerability into a Force’s Formation Supply distribution efficiency.

Whenever the game checks Formation Supply distribution efficiency (usually when supplying units), it looks to see if the Formation has a Headquarters unit assigned. If no Headquarters unit is assigned, or the assigned Headquarters has not been eliminated and either never had Support Squad equipment authorized or still has its full complement of Support Squads assigned, the usual Formation Supply distribution efficiency is used. If an assigned Headquarters has been destroyed, or if fewer than half of the authorized Support Squads are assigned, the Formation Supply distribution efficiency is 50% of its “best” level (the one you set in the Editor). At Support Squad levels between 50% and 100% of authorized, the Formation Supply distribution efficiency is tied to the fraction of assigned / authorized Support Squads.

If you don’t want these effects, don’t assign Support Squads to your HQ units. We strongly recommend against using Support Squads in Headquarters units below Regimental level.

How many support squads should you put in a Headquarters? The number is tied to the size of the Formation:

HQ Size Symbol and Support Squads for 100% Supply Distribution Efficiency:

Section 1
Platoon 1
Company 3
Battalion 5
Regiment 15
Brigade 20
Division 40
Corps 80
Army 120
Army Group 400
Theater 1200
Supreme Command 3600

You do not need to remember these numbers. You can assign any number of Support Squads to your Headquarters units. When you set the Formation Supply distribution efficiency for the Formation (including use of the global change functions in the Editor), the Editor will automatically recalculate the proper number of Support Squads for all Headquarters units affected by the change. Note that since the Supply Level is tied to the number of Support Squads assigned, there may be slight rounding errors, particularly in Brigade and lower level headquarters.

Protecting Headquarters Units

With the increased importance of Headquarters units using command groups or Support Squads, you need to be sure to include things like divisional Anti-Aircraft equipment in your Orders of Battle, otherwise your Formations will be very vulnerable to enemy Air attacks.

Significance of Unit Icons

Unit Type Symbols

Some, but not all, Unit Icon type symbols carry with them special Capabilities. In some cases, special equipment variants or modifications are implied. Use these symbols carefully. Symbols are listed by name in the Unit Types appendix which follows. Also see the Unit Symbol identification chart in section 16.1 [not included in this manual].

Guerrilla Units

You should use Guerrilla units only in Scenarios where Guerrillas have a historical reputation for special capabilities beyond those of Light Infantry. In many cases, it is more appropriate to use the Irregular unit type to simulate simple armed mobs. It is recommended that the guerrilla Event engine effect be used in conjunction with Guerrilla units in order to maximize enemy player confusion.

Unit Standard Icon Colors

Icon colors are significant. Remember that each degree of separation you select in your icon color schemes will add a degree of separation in unit cooperation. Maximum cooperation is possible between units with identical icon color schemes. Less cooperation is available between icons with similar background colors and different foreground (symbol) colors. Very little cooperation is possible between units with different icon base colors.

Replacements

In many cases, you can get away with one of the default Replacement settings, either 1% or 2%. See the Edit / Replacements menu item. The default settings will provide reasonable, if uninspired Replacements beginning on the first Turn and running through the end of the Scenario.

Equipment Transitions

In long Scenarios, you might wish to model equipment transitions. You have 24 slots for equipment in each unit – generally more than enough. Reserve two or three slots for equipment to be received by the unit at different times. For example, some of the armored units in the Korea Scenario start with a number of M-24’s or Shermans. If you examine them closely in the Editor, you will see that they have authorizations for Pershings and Pattons, but no assigned equipment in these slots. Check the U.N. Replacements for that Scenario and you will see that Shermans are replaced early, tailing off to be followed by Pershings, and finally by Pattons. Each equipment replacement schedule overlaps, but the result is that U.N. units will slowly transition from Shermans to Pershings to Pattons over the course of the Scenario.

If you are modeling equipment transitions, keep in mind that units that are destroyed will only reconstitute if a percentage of their First Line Equipment is available in the Replacement Pool. For example, if the First Line of  Equipment for a destroyed unit is 16/16 M-24's, the unit will only reconstitute if there are enough M-24's 'On Hand'. Therefore, if you transition M-24's out of the scenario it is possible that some units may not be able to reconstitute.

Replacement Multiplier Event Effects

If a major belligerent enters the fray during a Scenario, you should probably use the Event Engine to increase the gaining Force’s Replacements at the point of entry.

Supply

Supply Points

A Supply Point should be placed for any location that can supply a large portion of a Force. In long campaigns, this generally means the point through which supplies arrive in Theater.

In shorter Scenarios, Supply Points can represent local stockpiles. If you want Supplies to flow in through an Anchorage, you need to put a Supply Point there [there is no 'sea supply' or 'port supply']. Supply Points are placed for each side, up to a maximum of 399. One side's Supply Point will not supply the other side. If you want a single location to be able to supply either side, you should place one Point for each side in the location.

Differing Supply Levels: Forces vs. Formations vs. Units

Remember, units have organic supply levels reflecting actual beans, bullets, etc. These levels should frequently be set high at the beginnings of wars to reflect oversupply conditions common in attacking forces at the beginnings of wars. For mid-conflict campaigns, try not to set them above 100% since oversupply really is intended to reflect the kind of forward stockpiling that is difficult to achieve once the fighting begins. The Formation Supply distribution efficiency is a measure of the Formation’s ability as an organization to distribute any available Supplies from the Force Stockpile to units in their command. It does not represent a Stockpile.

Finally, the Force Stockpile is intended to represent the global availability of Supplies for one side. It represents actual Stockpiles, Production Capability, outside aid, etc. It is possible to have a very large Force Stockpile while individual units starve because of a poor supply distribution system, reflected by poor Formation Supply distribution efficiencies.

Consider the story of the quartermaster at Isandlwana (1879). As legend has it, the British troops had plenty of ammunition available, but the quartermaster refused to distribute it more rapidly than the official rate of replacement for British troops in the field. Good Force Supply Stockpile. poor Formation Supply Distribution Efficiency. Initially, good Unit Supply levels.

Imperial Japanese forces in the Pacific had to account for every round fired from the very beginning of the Pacific War. Pilots could receive a reprimand if commanders decided they had expended too much ammunition during a mission. Poor Force Supply Stockpile. Moderate Formation Supply Distribution Efficiencies. Initially, moderate Unit Supply levels.

Over the last half-century, an intermittent controversy has flared from time to time over the issue of “tail to teeth” in combat units. Western units have traditionally had very large Support services relative to communist units. In theory (and generally in practice), this has meant that western units could resupply from Force Stockpiles much more rapidly than their opponents. The Soviets, for example, had very large Supply Stockpiles from 1943 on, but their offensives usually stalled after a short advance because they lacked the ability to rapidly distribute Supplies to the troops needing them. This is in fact the primary driving force behind the Soviet practice of attack by echelon.

West: Good Force Supply Stockpiles. Good Formation Supply Distribution Efficiencies. Good Unit Supply levels.

Communist: Good Force Supply Stockpile levels. Poor Formation Supply Distribution Efficiencies. Situation-dependent Unit Supply levels.

Transport Asset Sharing

Don’t ignore the “boring” equipment assigned to units. Excess Trucks and Horse Teams may not influence a unit’s Movement capability, but they can have a very strong effect on Supply Distribution. Units that do not move and are not assigned a Local or Tactical Reserve status will temporarily lend a portion of their transport assets (equipment with a transport capability, such as trucks, horse teams, etc.) to their parent Formation (and possibly to others depending upon the Formation Support Level) to aid in distributing Supply to other units. Any unused Rail, Air, or Sea Transport Capacity also contributes to resupply efforts. This results in a boost to the Formation’s capacity to distribute supplies. Transport asset sharing has no negative effects.

However, also keep in mind that Trucks and Horse Teams have a Defensive Value, and therefore will contribute to the Defensive Strength of their unit. U.S. forces are well-known for their practice of temporarily stripping Transport assets from units that don’t need them and forming adhoc “Redball Express” units to aid in rapid resupply. This is modeled in the game as “Transport Asset Sharing”. On the other hand, remember that some Forces (particularly “third world” countries) should be chronically understrength in Transport assets.

The current Transport Asset Sharing level can be seen in the Situation Report.

Supply Modifier Event Effects

Even in simple Scenarios, you may wish to modify Force Supply Stockpile levels. Consider the case of Allied forces in France, 1944. Loss of any of the ports bringing in Supplies would have had a severe impact on the overall Supply availability. In Korea, 1950, loss of Pusan would have been devastating to the U.N. Supply Stockpile. You can model this partly by assigning different Supply Points for different ports of entry, then using the Event Engine to set the overall Supply Level depending upon who occupies different locations.

Scenario Briefing Illustration

If you place a bitmap illustration (a standard windows BMP file) with the same name as your Scenario file in the Graphics directory, your bitmap image will show up in the Scenario Briefing screen during game loads and when players examine the Scenario briefing within the game. For example, the bitmap for the “Korea 50-51” Scenario is named “Korea 50- 51”. There is an included document in the Manuals folder that gives a “how to” explanation of how to properly create a scenario bitmap. Once created, the scenario bitmap should be placed in either the same folder as the scenario file or in the scenario-specific graphics subfolder for the scenario.

Splitting TO&E Lines

Looking at the Baltic Fleet unit from the Baltic Fleet Formation in the “Soviet Union 1941” scenario, note the 40 DDs on one TO&E line and the 2 BBs on one other TO&E line. Since there is only one damage value stored per TO&E line, only one ship per line can incur and store damage as this unit is configured. Clearly, it would be better to have an individual line for each ship in the unit, if possible. But the TOAW Editor does not support that. There is no way to split up the 40 DDs or the 2 BBs within the TOAW Editor. However, you can do it from within an XML editor.

The first step is to dump the OOB as an XML file. With the Force Editor Dialog open, hit F4.

Save the OOB file.

The second step is to open that OOB file in an XML editor (for example: XMLPad).

Then, find the fleet unit in the file.

Then, edit each equipment line – editing, copying and pasting as needed – until the equipment lines have been split up as desired. Save the edited OOB file.

The following shot shows a possible such edit of the fleet shown above:

Note that there are now two lines for the BBs (one in each), and 20 lines for the DDs (two in each). Note that there is still a limit of 24 equipment slots per unit.

Now, again with the Force Editor Dialog open, hit F5 and upload the edited OOB file.

The following shot shows the resulting unit:

Designers may also want to “pre-set” damage on some ships. Again, this is not supported within the TOAW Editor, but can be done via an XML editor.

The above shot shows how to add damage values to ship TO&E lines. The key word DAMAGE is added to the line and the damage value is put in quotes.

Equipment.nqp File

The Equipment.nqp file allows designers to edit the naval scale factors of the base naval equipment flag classes. It also allows designers to explicitly specify the naval parameters for individual ship classes. Here’s how:

The Equipment.nqp file can be found in the Graphics Override sub-folder.

Displayed in XMLPad, there are seven lines of data. The first six lines specify the scale factors used for the various naval equipment flags, and embarked units. These values are used if the designer has not specified explicit values for these in a scenario specific version of this file (this will be discussed further down). Durability, Armor, and Accuracy factors are scaled by a factor of 1,000,000. (These numbers are the same as the ones in the first step of Appendix 19.4.1.)

Note that all speed values for these six lines are the same as the original nominal MPs for naval and embarked units (4200km/week). This speed is equivalent to about 13.5 knots. That’s fine for the ships used to embark land units, but naval units will usually be faster. An alternate version of the file is also available in the Graphics Override sub-folder.

Now Light Naval has a speed equivalent to 35 knots, Medium Naval has a speed equivalent to 32 knots, Heavy Naval has a speed equivalent to 25 knots, and Carrier Naval has a speed equivalent to 30 knots. If this .nqp file is opened in the Graphics Override sub-folder, these speeds will be applied to these naval classes in scenarios that have not been designer edited. Players can decide for themselves which of the two .nqp file choices they wish to have open in that folder. Copies of each are in their own zip files within that folder.

However, designers can make a scenario specific version of the .nqp file for their individual scenarios. Note the seventh line (“Equipment6”) in the above shots. While not used in the above versions, that line (and up to 100 copies of it) can be used to explicitly specify the values for an individual naval equipment item (the item must have a naval flag set). The file just needs to be in the scenario-specific graphics folder, like the scenario’s scenario-specific Equipment.eqp file. It follows folder hierarchy rules just like that earlier file. The following section will illustrate the format for such a scenario specific .nqp file.

Looking at the Okinawa 1945 v.3.0.nqp file in XMLPad, the “Equipment6” line has been replaced by a suite of lines explicitly specifying the various values for individual ship classes. The first six lines are unchanged. Note the format of the new lines: There is a name – for information purposes only (it is not required to resemble the ship class it relates to, but it helps the designer keep things straight). Next, the Durability, Armor, Agility, Accuracy, and Speed values (not scale factors like in the first six lines) are explicitly specified.

So, the Yamato has a durability of 265, armor of 401, Agility of 81, Accuracy of 265, and Speed of 8401 km/week (27 knots). Note that the Accuracy is the same as the Durability. This is typical. Note that the larger the Durability value the more accurate the ship is. The theory is that the bigger and heavier a ship the better a gun platform it is.

The only case shown where Durability is different from Accuracy is for the Essex. To allow three air groups on it, that Fleet Carrier has been split into three parts. So, each part has 1/3 the durability of the whole, but the Accuracy is based upon the whole, so is three times the size of the Durability. So, the main purpose of the Accuracy parameter is to facilitate component ship modeling.

But, how do you link the new lines with the equipment items in the original Equipment.eqp file? Answer: you use the “Weight” parameter.

Since that had never been used by naval equipment, the .nqp file now uses it to index the equipment to its proper line in the .nqp file. For example, the Yamato’s data is on line 25 of the .nqp file, so its “Weight” parameter must be set to 25. This can be done using the BioEd as shown:

Note that the new lines start numbering from 6 (the first six lines are 0 through 5) and increment from there. If the Weight is left at 0, then the values are calculated from the ship’s Defense Strength using the scale factors in the first six lines of the .nqp file.

The data used for the explicit values came, in this case, from War in the Pacific. Designers can use their own sources, of course – including the web. This subject has been extensively discussed on the TOAW board. Designers needing help can seek it there if they wish.

Note that the first six lines will still affect any ship class that has its weight value left at zero.

Designers may want to customize those values for that reason. Designers can customize the parameters for embarked units via the sixth line. Note that the agility factors used were based upon Pacific War evasion ratings. Those ratings used the following formulae:

  • For Carrier or Battleship: 3 x speed.
  • For Cruiser: 5 x speed.
  • For Destroyer: 6 x speed.
  • For Transport: 1 x speed.

Modding Tools

  • TOAWxml editor: allows players to revise most Force, Formation, Unit, and Equipment data in the OOBs and various scenario and force settings.